Friction is what keeps us from realizing our goals. It is what compromises all of our plans, sometimes making them unrecognizable. It defies our wish for perfection and constantly surprises us with new elements of resistance. It constitutes the divide between dream and reality.But friction is also what gets us moving, a necessary incentive to achieve progress. Nothing can start if it cannot push off something else. By blocking or delaying the easy solution, friction makes for a richer, more varied world. If it stops schemes from being completely fulfilled, it also stops them form going totally awry.To the modernist project, with its one-sided rationalist pretensions, friction is unambiguously bad?and so it is being disposed of at an increasing speed. The currency markets are one example, cyberspace another. This means less and less time to pause and rethink, while the vulnerability of societies is aggravated. In The Necessity of Friction, scholars tackle this topical and important concept. A number of scientific fields are engaged: physics, philosophy, economics, architecture, organizational theory, artificial intelligence, and others. Together, these contributions form the first modern-day attempt at analyzing the intriguing yet elusive subject of friction as metaphor.

part One|26 pages

Points of Departure

chapter 1|25 pages

A Free-Falling Society? Six Introductory Notes

ByNordal Åkerman

part Two|34 pages

On the Battlefield

chapter 2|32 pages

Friction and Warfare

ByChris Donnelly

part Three|53 pages

Incentives for Progress

chapter 3|10 pages

Let Us Now Praise Dragging Feet!

ByOttar Brox

chapter 4|23 pages

Social Change Induced by Technology: Promotion and Resistance

ByT. R. Lakshmanan

chapter 5|18 pages

Inertia and Development Models

ByGeorg Seørensen

part Four|47 pages

Rationality in the Marketplace

chapter 6|13 pages

Friction in Economics

ByKeith Griffin

chapter 7|32 pages

Essential Friction: Error-Control in Organizational Behavior

ByGene I. Rochlin

part Five|27 pages

Elation and Frustration

chapter 8|13 pages

Playing, Writing, Wrestling

BySigrid Combüchen

chapter 9|9 pages

Why Things Don't Happen as Planned

ByJon Elster

chapter 10|3 pages

Six Poèmes en Prose

ByKlaus Rifbjerg

part Six|47 pages

Structuring the Human Space

chapter 11|10 pages

The Desire for Order

ByJoanne Finkelstein

chapter 12|8 pages

Stay in My House

ByKaj Nyman

chapter 13|10 pages

Unpredictability, Frictions, and Order

ByÅke E. Andersson

chapter 14|17 pages

Friction and Inertia in Industrial Design

ByJohn Heskett

part Seven|25 pages

Physics and Metaphysics

chapter 15|15 pages

An Exemplary Physical Disposition

ByRom Harré

chapter 16|8 pages

Friction of Bodies, Friction of Minds

ByAgnes Heller

part Eight|18 pages

Into the Future

chapter 17|16 pages

Frictionless Forecasting Is A Fiction

ByHubert L. Dreyfus, Stuart E. Dreyfus

part Nine|27 pages

Metaphor Transferred

chapter 18|25 pages

Rediscovering Friction: Not All That Is Solid Melts into Air

ByHelga Nowotny