This volume addresses major issues and research in corrections and sentencing with the goal of using previous research and findings as a platform for recommendations about future research, evaluation, and policy.

The last several decades witnessed major policy changes in sentencing and corrections in the United States, as well as considerable research to identify the most effective strategies for addressing criminal behavior. These efforts included changes in sentencing that eliminated parole and imposed draconian sentences for violent and drug crimes. The federal government, followed by most states, implemented sentencing guidelines that greatly reduced the discretion of the courts to impose sentences. The results were a multifold increase in the numbers of individuals in jails and prisons and on community supervision—increases that have only recently crested. There were also efforts to engage prosecutors and the courts in diversion and oversight, including the development of prosecutorial diversion programs, as well as a variety of specialty courts. Penal reform has included efforts to understand the transitions from prison to the community, including federal-led efforts focused on reentry programming. Community corrections reforms have ranged from increased surveillance through drug testing, electronic monitoring, and in some cases, judicial oversight, to rehabilitative efforts driven by risk and needs assessment. More recently, the focus has included pretrial reform to reduce the number of people held in jail pending trial, efforts that have brought attention to the use of bail and its disproportionate impact on people of color and the poor.

This collection of chapters from leading researchers addresses a wide array of the latest research in the field. A unique approach featuring responses to the original essays by active researchers spurs discussion and provides a foundation for developing directions for future research and policymaking.

chapter |8 pages


ByPamela K. Lattimore, Beth M. Huebner, Faye S. Taxman

part I|49 pages

Courts and Sentencing

chapter 1|15 pages

Reflections on the Multi-Site Drug Court Evaluation

What Did We Learn and What Does It Mean?
ByJanine Zweig, Janeen Buck Willison, Shelli B. Rossman, John K. Roman

chapter 2|20 pages

At the Crossroads

Large-Scale Studies of Behavioral Health Treatment Interventions for People in the Criminal Justice System
ByAlexander J. Cowell, Michael S. Shafer

chapter 3|12 pages

What Comes Next? On the Evolution of Community Courts

ByGreg Berman, Julian Adler, Joseph Barrett, Kate Penrose

part II|126 pages

Community Corrections

chapter 4|18 pages

From Mean to Meaningful Probation

The Legacy of Intensive Supervision Programs
ByFaye S. Taxman, Lindsay Smith, Danielle S. Rudes

chapter 6|9 pages

Fines, Fees, and Debt in Community Corrections

Past, Present, and Future
ByEbony L. Ruhland, Nathan W. Link

chapter 8|19 pages

A Supervision Policy with Scope

Revisiting Washington State’s Swift-and-Certain Initiative
ByChristopher M. Campbell, Jacqueline van Wormer, Zachary K. Hamilton

chapter 9|15 pages

Parole Decision-Making

Moving Towards Evidence-Based Practice
ByRalph C. Serin, Kaitlyn Wardrop, Laura Gamwell, Jennifer Shaffer

chapter 10|9 pages

Back-End Sentencing and Opting Out of the Parole Process

Two Areas for Further Study in Corrections and Reentry Research
ByMichael Ostermann, Jordan Costa, Bernadette C. Hohl

chapter 11|7 pages

Family Work in Corrections

Trends From Efforts in Youth Justice
ByChris Trotter

chapter 12|11 pages

Understanding Rapport in Supervision Settings

ByC.J. Appleton

part III|74 pages

Prisons and Jails

chapter 13|29 pages

Lessons from the Multi-Site Family Study of Incarceration, Parenting, and Partnering

ByChristine H. Lindquist, Tasseli McKay, Anupa Bir

chapter 14|17 pages

Putting a Square Into a Circle

The Story of Boot Camps—A Tribute to Doris MacKenzie’s Work
ByFaye S. Taxman, Lindsay Smith, Danielle S. Rudes

chapter 15|13 pages

Supermax Incarceration

Current Evidence and Next Steps in Improving Research and Policy 1
ByDaniel P. Mears

chapter 16|7 pages

Advances in Corrections Research

Understanding How Prisons Continue to Influence Maladjustment
ByH. Daniel Butler, Jonathan R. Brauer, Jacob C. Day

chapter 17|6 pages

Criminal Justice Reform in California

A Lesson for the Nation?
ByCharis E. Kubrin

part IV|120 pages


chapter 18|17 pages

Examining the Field’s First Multisite Reentry Experiment

Lessons Learned From the Evaluation of the Opportunity to Succeed (OPTS) Aftercare Program
ByJaneen Buck Willison, Shelli B. Rossman, Caterina Roman

chapter 19|34 pages

Returning Home

A Pathbreaking Study of Prisoner Reentry and Its Challenges
ByChristy A. Visher, Nancy La Vigne

chapter 20|24 pages

Considerations on the Multi-Site Evaluation of the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative

ByPamela K. Lattimore, Christy A. Visher

chapter 22|8 pages

A Time for Mercy

ByVeronica Horowitz

chapter 23|12 pages

Building on Reentry Research

A New Conceptual Framework and Approach to Reentry Services and Research
ByCarrie Pettus-Davis, Stephanie C. Kennedy

chapter |5 pages

Afterword: Intensive Non-Intervention

ByTodd R. Clear