ABSTRACT

Alcohol, Drugs, and Impaired Driving addresses many theoretical and practical issues related to the role played by alcohol and other psychoactive drugs on driving performance, road-traffic safety, and public health. Several key forensic issues are involved in the enforcement of laws regulating driving under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs, including analytical toxicology, pharmacology of drug action, as well as the relationships between dose taken, concentration levels in the body, and impairment of performance and behavior. Our knowledge of drunken driving is much more comprehensive than drugged driving, so a large part of this book is devoted to alcohol impairment, as well as impairment caused by use of drugs other than alcohol.

For convenience, the book is divided into four main sections. The first section gives some historical background about measuring alcohol in blood and breath as evidence for the prosecution of traffic offenders. The important role of the Breathalyzer instrument in traffic-law enforcement, especially in Australia, Canada, and the USA is presented along with a biographical sketch of its inventor (Professor Robert F. Borkenstein of Indiana University) with focus on the man, his work and his impact. The second section discusses several issues related to forensic blood and breath-alcohol alcohol analysis as evidence for prosecution of traffic offenders. This includes how the results should be interpreted in relation to impairment and an evaluation of common defense challenges. Because most countries have adopted concentration per se laws, the main thrust of the prosecution case is the suspect’s measured blood- or breath-alcohol concentration. This legal framework necessitates that the analytical methods used are "fit for purpose" and are subjected to rigorous quality assurance procedures. The third section gives a broad overview of the current state of knowledge about driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs in various countries. This includes adoption of zero-tolerance laws, concentration per se statutes, and clinical evidence of driver impairment based on field sobriety tests and drug recognition expert evidence. The fourth section deals with epidemiology, enforcement, and countermeasures aimed at reducing the threat of drunken and drugged driving.

All articles have appeared previously in the international journal Forensic Science Review, but all are completely updated with current data, references, and the latest research on developments since the articles were published. This book contains a convenient collection of the best articles covering recommendations for blood and breath testing methods, public policy relating to such methods, and forensic and legal implications of the enforcement of measures to counter driving under the influence.

section I|57 pages

History of Driving Under the Influence

chapter 1|55 pages

Driving Under the Influence of Psychoactive Substances

A Historical Review *
ByA. Wayne Jones, Jørg G. Mørland, Ray H. Liu

section II|94 pages

Other Historical Events of Interest

chapter 2|25 pages

Professor Robert F. Borkenstein

An Appreciation of His Life and Work *
ByDouglas M. Lucas

chapter 3|17 pages

Epidemiology of Alcohol-Related Accidents and the Grand Rapids Study *

ByPatricia F. Waller

chapter 4|48 pages

The Analysis of Ethanol in Blood and Breath for Legal Purposes

A Historical Review *
ByA. Wayne Jones

section III|225 pages

Forensic Issues Involving Alcohol

chapter 5|47 pages

Use of Punishable Limits of Blood- and Breath-Alcohol Concentration in Traffic-Law Enforcement

Some Advantages and Limitations *
ByA. Wayne Jones

chapter 7|29 pages

Quality Assurance in Forensic Breath-Alcohol Analysis *

ByRod G. Gullberg

chapter 8|72 pages

Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol

A Primer for Forensic Practitioners *
ByA. Wayne Jones

chapter 9|31 pages

Biomarkers for the Identification of Alcohol Use/Misuse *

ByFederica Bortolotti, Franco Tagliaro

section IV|183 pages

Use of Non-alcohol Drugs and Impaired Driving

chapter 10|40 pages

Driving Under the Influence of Non-alcohol Drugs

Review of Earlier Studies *
ByJørg G. Mørland

chapter 11|43 pages

Driving Under the Influence of Non-alcohol Drugs *

ByMaren C. Strand, Hallvard Gjerde, Jørg G. Mørland

chapter 12|44 pages

Driving Under the Influence of Non-alcohol Drugs

Epidemiological Studies *
ByHallvard Gjerde, Maren C. Strand, Jørg G. Mørland

chapter 13|53 pages

International Trends in Alcohol and Drug Use Among Motor Vehicle Drivers *

ByAsbjørg S. Christophersen, Jørg G. Mørland, Kathryn Stewart, Hallvard Gjerde

section V|127 pages

Epidemiology, Enforcement, and Countermeasures

chapter 14|16 pages

Alcohol Limits and Public Safety * , †

ByDennis V. Canfield, Kurt M. Dubowski, Mack Cowan, Patrick M. Harding

chapter 15|29 pages

Methodologies for Establishing the Relationship Between Alcohol/Drug Use and Driving Impairment

Differences Between Epidemiological, Experimental, and Real-Case Studies *
ByHallvard Gjerde, Johannes G. Ramaekers, Jørg G. Mørland

chapter 16|42 pages

Vehicle Safety Features Aimed at Preventing Alcohol-Related Crashes *

ByRobert B. Voas

chapter 17|37 pages

Approaches for Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving

Evidence-Based Legislation, Law Enforcement Strategies, Sanctions, and Alcohol-Control Policies *
ByJames C. Fell