Informal language learning beyond the classroom plays an important and growing role in language learning and teaching. This Handbook brings together the existing body of research and unites the various disciplines that have explored this area, in order to present the current state of knowledge in one accessible resource.

Much of adult learning takes place outside of formal education and for language learning, it is likely that out-of-class experiences play an equally important role. It is therefore surprising that the role of informal language learning has received little attention over the years, with the vast majority of research instead focusing on the classroom. Researchers from a range of backgrounds, however, have started to realise the important contribution of informal language learning, both in its own right, and in its relationship with classroom learning. Studies in the areas of learner autonomy, learning strategies, study abroad, language support, learners’ voices, computer-mediated communication, mobile-assisted language learning, digital gaming, and many others, all add to our understanding of the complex and intersecting ways in which learners construct their own language learning experiences, drawing from a wide range of resources, including materials, teachers, self-study, technology, other learners and native speakers.

This Handbook provides a sound and comprehensive basis for researchers and graduate students to build upon in their own research of language learning and teaching beyond the classroom.

chapter |6 pages


Language Learning and Teaching Beyond the Classroom

part I|119 pages

Mapping LLTBC

chapter 4|15 pages

Participant-Driven L2 Learning in the Wild

An Overview and Its Pedagogical Implications

chapter 6|17 pages

CALL in the Wild

A Voyage of Independent Self-directed Learning

chapter 7|14 pages

English Language Learning Beyond the Classroom

Do Learner Factors Matter?

chapter 8|14 pages

The Golden Age of Foreign Language Learning

Age and Language Learning Beyond the Classroom

part II|170 pages

Supporting LLTBC

chapter 14|19 pages

Learning to Act in the Social World

Building Interactional Competence through Everyday Language Use Experiences

chapter 20|11 pages

Assessments of and for LBC

part III|142 pages

Researching LLTBC

chapter 27|14 pages

Ethnography in LBC Research

chapter 28|13 pages

When Classrooms Aren't an Option

Researching Mobile Language Learning through Disruption

chapter 29|18 pages

Bringing Beyond into the L2 Classroom

On Video Ethnography and the ‘Wild’ In-class Use of Smartphones