All over the world and throughout millennia, states have attempted to subjugate, control and dominate non-state populations and to end their wars. This book compares such processes of pacification leading to the end of tribal warfare in seven societies from all over the world between the 19th and 21st centuries. It shows that pacification cannot be understood solely as a unilateral imposition of state control but needs to be approached as the result of specific interactions between state actors and non-state local groups. Indigenous groups usually had options in deciding between accepting and resisting state control. State actors often had to make concessions or form alliances with indigenous groups in order to pursue their goals. Incentives given to local groups sometimes played a more important role in ending warfare than repression. In this way, indigenous groups, in interaction with state actors, strongly shaped the character of the process of pacification. This volume’s comparison finds that pacification is more successful and more durable where state actors mainly focus on selective incentives for local groups to renounce warfare, offer protection, and only as a last resort use moderate repression, combined with the quick establishment of effective institutions for peaceful conflict settlement.

chapter 1|7 pages


ByJürg Helbling, Tobias Schwoerer

chapter 3|25 pages

The Herero and Nama in German South-West Africa (1830–1910)

ByMatthias Häussler

chapter 4|28 pages

The Eastern Highlands of New Guinea (1930–1965)

ByTobias Schwoerer

chapter 5|25 pages

The Iban in Sarawak (1840–1920)

ByJürg Helbling

chapter 6|23 pages

The Lobi in French West Africa (1897–1940)

ByNatalie Ammann

chapter 7|23 pages

The Naga in British North-East India (1830–1890)

ByRuth Werner

chapter 8|24 pages

The Karimojong in Uganda (1898–2010)

ByTobias Schwoerer

chapter 9|29 pages

The Waorani in Ecuador (1940–2000)

ByJürg Helbling

chapter 10|29 pages


Comparing Configurations and Processes of Pacification
ByJürg Helbling, Tobias Schwoerer