ABSTRACT

Once the stuff of science fiction, recent progress in artificial intelligence, robotics, and machine learning means that these rapidly advancing technologies are finally coming into widespread use within everyday life. Such rapid development in these areas also brings with it a host of social, political and legal issues, as well as a rise in public concern and academic interest in the ethical challenges these new technologies pose. This volume is a collection of scholarly work from leading figures in the development of both robot ethics and machine ethics; it includes essays of historical significance which have become foundational for research in these two new areas of study, as well as important recent articles. The research articles selected focus on the control and governance of computational systems; the exploration of ethical and moral theories using software and robots as laboratories or simulations; inquiry into the necessary requirements for moral agency and the basis and boundaries of rights; and questions of how best to design systems that are both useful and morally sound. Collectively the articles ask what the practical ethical and legal issues, arising from the development of robots, will be over the next twenty years and how best to address these future considerations.

chapter |15 pages

Introduction

The Emergence of Robot Ethics and Machine Ethics
ByPeter Asaro, Wendell Wallach

part Part I|45 pages

Laying Foundations

chapter 1|9 pages

Asimov’s Laws of Robotics: Implications for Information Technology

Part 1
ByRoger Clarke

chapter 2|10 pages

Asimov’s Laws of Robotics: Implications for Information Technology

Part 2
ByRoger Clarke

chapter 3|11 pages

Prolegomena to any future artificial moral agent

ByColin Allen, Gary Varner, Jason Zinser

chapter 4|3 pages

How Computer Systems Embody Values

ByHelen Nissenbaum

chapter 5|7 pages

Ethical Issues in Advanced Artificial Intelligence

ByNick Bostrom

part Part II|154 pages

Robot Ethics

chapter 6|7 pages

Roboethics: a Bottom-up Interdisciplinary Discourse in the Field of Applied Ethics in Robotics

ByGianmarco Veruggio, Fiorella Operto

chapter 7|8 pages

What Should We Want From a Robot Ethic?

ByPeter M. Asaro

chapter 8|11 pages

The Turing Triage Test

ByRobert Sparrow

chapter 9|10 pages

A Nascent Robotics Culture: New Complicities for Companionship

BySherry Turkle

chapter 10|7 pages

Moral appearances: emotions, robots, and human morality

ByMark Coeckelbergh

chapter 11|12 pages

Robot caregivers: harbingers of expanded freedom for all?

ByJason Borenstein, Yvette Pearson

chapter 13|30 pages

The crying shame of robot nannies

An ethical appraisal
ByNoel Sharkey, Amanda Sharkey

chapter 14|27 pages

Designing Robots for Care: Care Centered Value-Sensitive Design

ByAimee van Wynsberghe

chapter 15|12 pages

Robots, Love, and Sex: The Ethics of Building a Love Machine

ByJohn P. Sullins

chapter 16|6 pages

Moral Competence in Social Robots

ByBertram F. Malle, Matthias Scheutz

part Part III|84 pages

Machine Ethics

chapter 17|4 pages

The Mature, Importance, and Difficulty of Machine Ethics

ByJames H. Moor

chapter 18|12 pages

Machine Ethics: Creating an Ethical Intelligent Agent

ByMichael Anderson, Susan Leigh Anderson

chapter 19|18 pages

Machine morality: bottom-up and top-down approaches for modelling human moral faculties

ByWendell Wallach, Colin Allen, Iva Smit

chapter 20|8 pages

Why Ethics is a High Hurdle for AI

ByDrew McDermott

chapter 21|6 pages

Prospects for a Kantian Machine

ByThomas M. Powers

chapter 23|7 pages

Toward a General Logicist Methodology for Engineering Ethically Correct Roborts

BySelmer Bringsjord, Konstantine Arkoudas, Paul Bello

chapter 24|16 pages

Consciousness and Ethics: Artificially Conscious Moral Agents

ByWendell Wallach, Colin Allen, Stan Franklin

part Part IV|97 pages

Moral Agents and Agency

chapter 25|31 pages

On the Morality of Artificial Agents

ByLuciano Floridi, J.W. Sanders

chapter 26|11 pages

Un-making artificial moral agents

ByDeborah G. Johnson, Keith W. Miller

chapter 27|15 pages

Agencies in Technology Design: Feminist Reconfigurations*

ByLucy Suchman

chapter 28|6 pages

Learning robots and human responsibility

ByDante Marino, Guglielmo Tamburrini

chapter 30|7 pages

Beyond Asimov: The Three Laws of Responsible Robotics

ByRobin R. Murphy, David D. Woods

part Part V|118 pages

Law and Policy

chapter 31|57 pages

Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligences

ByLawrence B. Solum

chapter 32|18 pages

Ethical regulations on robotics in Europe

ByMichael Nagenborg, Rafael Capurro, Jutta Weber, Christoph Pingel

chapter 33|15 pages

12 Robots and Privacy

ByM. Ryan Calo

chapter 34|3 pages

The Robot Car of Tomorrow May Just Be Programmed to Hit You

ByPatrick Lin

chapter 35|20 pages

A Vindication of the Rights of Machines

ByDavid J. Gunkel