Building on an original interpretation of social theory and an interdisciplinary approach, this book creates a new paradigm in the Russian studies. Taking a fresh view of Russia’s multiple experiences of modernization, it seeks to explain the Putin era in a completely new way.

This book explores the paradoxical and contradictory aspects of Russia, analyzing the energy-dependent economy and hybrid political regime, but also religion, welfare, and culture, and their often complex interrelations. Written by a community of both Western and Russian scholars, this book re-affirms the value of social science when confronting a society that has undergone enormous and costly systematic changes. The Russian elites see modernization narrowly as economic and technological competitiveness. The contributors to this volume see contemporary Russia facing a series of antinomies, which are macro-level dilemmas that cannot be abolished, either by philosophical mediation or by immediate political decisions. As such, they are the tension fields that constitute choices for various competing agencies.

This book will be of interest to scholars and students of Russian studies, transition studies, sociology, social policy, political science, energy policy, cultural studies, and stratification studies. Professionals involved in energy, ecology, and security policy will also find this publication a rich source.

chapter 1|29 pages

Russian modernization

A new paradigm
ByMarkku Kivinen, Mikhail Maslovskiy

chapter 2|40 pages

Modernization of the Russian economy

Fossil fuels, diversification, and the shackles of international political economy
ByPami Aalto, Anna Lowry

chapter 3|35 pages

Authoritarian modernization in post-Soviet Russia

Structures, agencies, and choices
ByVladimir Gel’man, Markku Kangaspuro, Jouko Nikula, Jussi Lassila, Anna-Liisa Heusala, Marina Khmelnitskaya, Andrey Starodubtsev

chapter 4|67 pages

Modernization of the Russian social policy

Social crisis, interventions, and withdrawals
ByMarkku Kivinen, Meri Kulmala, Jouko Nikula, Simo Mannila, Markus Kainu, Laura Kemppainen, Teemu Kemppainen, Kaarina Aitamurto, Andrey Starodubtsev, Roosa Rytkönen, Marina Khmelnitskaya, Anna Tarasenko

chapter 5|82 pages

Post-Soviet Russian culture

Anomy, desecularization and the conservative turn
ByMarkku Kivinen, Arto Mustajoki, Jouko Nikula, Ira Österberg, Kaarina Aitamurto, Elina Kahla, Vesa Oittinen, Elina Viljanen, Markku Kangaspuro, Jussi Lassila, Susanna Hast, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Saara Ratilainen

chapter 6|27 pages

Modernization of Russia’s foreign and security policy

ByTuomas Forsberg, Hanna Smith, Katri Pynnönniemi, Sirke Mäkinen, Nina Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen

chapter 7|11 pages

Interdisciplinary synthesis

Antinomies of Russian modernization
ByMarkku Kivinen, Brendan Humphreys