This accessible textbook introduces a wide spectrum of ideas, approaches, and examples that make up the emerging field of implementation science, including implementation theory, processes and methods, data collection and analysis, brokering interest on the ground, and sustainable implementation.

Containing over 60 concise essays, each addressing the thorny problem of how we can make care more evidence-informed, this book looks at how implementation science should be defined, how it can be conducted, and how it is assessed. It offers vital insight into how research findings that are derived from healthcare contexts can help make sense of service delivery and patient encounters. Each entry concentrates on an important concept and examines the idea’s evidence base, root causes and effects, ideas and applications, and methodologies and methods. Revealing a very human side to caregiving, but also tackling its more complex and technological aspects, the contributors draw on real-life healthcare examples to look both at why things go right in introducing a new intervention and at what can go wrong. Implementation Science: The Key Concepts provides a toolbox of rich, contemporary thought from leading international thinkers, clearly and succinctly delivered.

This comprehensive and enlightening range of ideas and examples brought together in one place is essential reading for all students, researchers, and practitioners with an interest in translating knowledge into practice in healthcare.

part I|75 pages

Principles and concepts of implementation science

chapter |4 pages

Setting the scene

Principles and concepts of implementation science
ByFrances Rapport, Robyn Clay-Williams, Jeffrey Braithwaite

chapter 1|6 pages

Complexity science

ByJeffrey Braithwaite

chapter 2|2 pages

Taking a systems view

ByMoriah E. Ellen, Saritte Perlman

chapter 3|5 pages

Resilience changes the lens for healthcare implementation systems

ByDavid D. Woods, Michael F. Rayo

chapter 4|4 pages

Implementation systems that support resilient performance

ByMichael F. Rayo

chapter 5|4 pages

Principles of implementation science

ByAmy M. Kilbourne

chapter 6|2 pages

Medical humanism

The role of character in implementation science
ByMark Clark

chapter 7|4 pages


ByRoman Kislov, Paul Wilson

chapter 8|4 pages

Theories, models, and frameworks in implementation science

A Taxonomy
ByPer Nilsen

chapter 9|4 pages

The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)

ByLaura Damschroder

chapter 10|5 pages

The Theoretical Domains Framework

ByFabiana Lorencatto

chapter 11|4 pages

Organization theory for implementation science

BySarah A. Birken, Emily R. Haines

chapter 12|5 pages

Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework

ByJoanna C. Moullin, Gregory A. Aarons

chapter 13|3 pages

Implementation science as process ecology

Normalization Process Theory
ByCarl May

chapter 14|3 pages

Diffusion of Innovation theory

ByPing Yu

chapter 15|3 pages

Health-related quality of life

ByBen Smith, Ivana Durcinoska

chapter 16|3 pages

Shared decision-making

Consider context
ByGlyn Elwyn

chapter 18|5 pages

Pipeline and cyclical models of evidence building

The roles of implementation research
ByCarolyn J. Hill, Virginia Knox

part II|74 pages

Methodology and methods of implementation science

chapter 19|4 pages


ByNick Sevdalis, Louise Hull

chapter 20|2 pages

Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA)

ByJeffrey Braithwaite

chapter 21|4 pages

Formative Evaluation Feedback Loops

ByJeffrey Braithwaite

chapter 23|3 pages

Core and variation components

ByTerje Ogden

chapter 24|3 pages


Appreciating patterns and coherence in complexity
ByDavid C. Aron, Luci Leykum

chapter 25|4 pages

Methodological diversity

ByFrances Rapport, Yvonne Zurynski

chapter 26|3 pages

Applying the Theoretical Domains Framework

Its uses and limitations
ByFabiana Lorencatto

chapter 27|2 pages


ByJustin Waring, Jenelle Clarke

chapter 28|2 pages

Walking methods

ByFrances Rapport

chapter 29|3 pages

Modelling complex socio-technical systems

The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM)
ByErik Hollnagel, Robyn Clay-Williams

chapter 30|3 pages

Getting a handle on the social processes of implementation

Social network research
ByJanet C. Long

chapter 31|2 pages

Sentiment analysis for use within rapid implementation research

How far and fast can we go?
ByJames Smith

chapter 32|5 pages

Mixed method designs

ByLawrence A. Palinkas

chapter 33|2 pages

Simulation to improve patient care

ByMary D. Patterson, Ellen S. Deutsch

chapter 34|2 pages

In situ simulation

ByKyota Nakamura, Kazue Nakajima

chapter 35|3 pages

Emergency Implementation Science

ByJohn Øvretveit

chapter 36|6 pages

Planning for implementation

Why, who, and how
ByAndrea Smith, Karen Hutchinson

chapter 37|3 pages

Consensus building

A key concept in implementation science
ByLawrence Susskind

chapter 38|3 pages


Finding clues and using cues to shift clinician behaviour
ByKlay Lamprell

chapter 39|3 pages

Design and implementation of dashboards in healthcare

ByKristiana Ludlow, Johanna Westbrook

chapter 40|2 pages


Paying attention to the stories we tell to improve our ability to act
ByLuci K. Leykum, David C. Aron

chapter 41|4 pages


ByUlrica von Thiele Schwarz, Henna Hasson, Gregory A. Aarons

part III|75 pages

Challenges with evidence into practice

chapter 42|4 pages

Evidence synthesis

Maximizing the potential
ByJo Rycroft-Malone

chapter 43|5 pages

Theory-driven evaluation

ByHuey T. Chen

chapter 44|3 pages

Process evaluation of implementation strategies

ByMichel Wensing

chapter 45|2 pages


ByDavid Chambers

chapter 46|2 pages

A learning perspective on implementation

ByPer Nilsen, Margit Neher, Per-Erik Ellström, Benjamin Gardner

chapter 47|4 pages


Impact on implementation processes and outcomes
ByMark G. Ehrhart, Gregory A. Aarons

chapter 48|3 pages

Work-as-Imagined and Work- as-Done

ByErik Hollnagel, Robyn Clay-Williams

chapter 49|3 pages

Leading implementation by focusing on strategic implementation leadership

ByGregory A. Aarons, Mark G. Ehrhart

chapter 50|2 pages

Agents of change

The example of an allied health professional
ByKate Laver

chapter 51|2 pages

Clinical decision support

ByDavid W. Bates

chapter 52|3 pages

Interprofessional team working

The case of care pathways
ByKris Vanhaecht, Ellen Coeckelberghs

chapter 53|2 pages

Older people's care

ByJackie Bridges

chapter 54|3 pages

Implementation interventions to enhance patient self-management

ByMichel Wensing

chapter 55|3 pages

Complex systems and unintended consequences

ByRobyn Clay-Williams

chapter 56|3 pages

The nature and need for slack in healthcare services

ByTarcisio A. Saurin

chapter 57|2 pages

Diagnosis errors

ByGordon D. Schiff

chapter 58|4 pages

“Scaling-out” evidence-based practices

ByMarisa Sklar, Gregory A. Aarons

chapter 59|4 pages

Implementation sustainability

BySharon E. Straus

chapter 60|4 pages


ByIestyn Williams, Russell Mannion

chapter |15 pages

The long and winding road

Navigating the field of implementation science
ByJeffrey Braithwaite, Frances Rapport, Robyn Clay-Williams