This volume provides a state-of-the-art analysis on the fourth wave of far-right politics in Germany by leading scholars in the field. Innovatively, the book focuses not only on the role of the electoral breakthrough of AfD, the Federal Republic’s first-ever nationally established far-right party, but also on the many crucial instances of non-party activism, such as the ‘New Right’ intellectual circles, PEGIDA street protest, and political violence.

For a long time, Germany was regarded as an exceptional case because of the lack of an established far-right party on the national level. Times have changed – but Germany still remains unique. The book highlights four features that continue to make the case exceptional within Western Europe: (I) The strong diversity of vibrant far-right political players in Germany and their many interconnections, (II) the electoral success of AfD, i.e. the delayed electoral breakthrough of a far-right party on the national level, (III) the importance of ‘militant democracy’, specifically how established players have responded to AfD, and (IV) the relevance of the east-west divide for understanding far-right politics in Germany. Contributions on these topics highlight the broader theoretical relevance of the analysis of the German far-right, connecting to many research questions that have occupied scholars also in other contexts.

The book is essential reading for all those with an interest in the far right, German and European politics, as well as in the interconnections between political parties, social movements, and subcultural milieus.

chapter |17 pages


German Exceptionalism During the Fourth Wave of Far-right Politics

part I|94 pages

The Far Right Outside of Legislatures

chapter 201|18 pages

Germany's New Right

Between Neo-National Socialism and Liberal Democracy

chapter 2|18 pages

Germany's Anti-Islamic Pegida Movement

A Local Phenomenon and Its Broader Impact

chapter 3|19 pages

Interconnected Realities

The Hybrid Dynamics of Far-Right Online and Offline Mobilisation

chapter 4|15 pages

Fitting in, Standing out

Far-Right Youth Style and Commercialization in Germany

chapter 5|22 pages

The Violence of the Far-Right

The Three Decades after German Reunification

part II|118 pages

The Electoral Breakthrough of the AfD

chapter 8|15 pages

Far-Right Parties and Divisions over Movement-Party Strategy

The AfD and the Anti-Corona Protests of Querdenken

chapter 9|15 pages

The Power of Anti-Pacting in Germany

History and Outlook

chapter 10|16 pages

Learning how to Respond to the AfD

Uploading from the Subnational to the National Level?

chapter 11|15 pages

The AfD's Influence on Germany's Coalition Landscape

Obstacle or Opportunity for the Center-right?

chapter |11 pages


Toward a Fifth Wave of Far-Right Politics in Germany and Beyond?