Originally conceived as a military history, this second edition completes the story of the Middle Eastern populations that underwent significant transformation in the nineteenth century, finally imploding in communal violence, paramilitary activity, and genocide after the Berlin Treaty of 1878.

Now called The Ottomans 1700-1923: An Empire Besieged, the book charts the evolution of a military system in the era of shrinking borders, global consciousness, financial collapse, and revolutionary fervour. The focus of the text is on those who fought, defended, and finally challenged the sultan and the system, leaving long-lasting legacies in the contemporary Middle East. Richly illustrated, the text is accompanied by brief portraits of the friends and foes of the Ottoman house.

Written by a foremost scholar of the Ottoman Empire and featuring illustrations that have not been seen in print before, this second edition is essential reading for both students and scholars of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman society, military and political history, and Ottoman-European relations.

chapter |9 pages


The Ottomans 1700–1923: An empire besieged
ByVirgini Aksan

part I|64 pages

The Ottoman World pre-1800

chapter 1|25 pages

Imperial crisis in the Eurasian context

ByVirginia Aksan

chapter 2|37 pages

The Ottoman system circa 1700

ByVirginia Aksan

part II|74 pages

The revolutionary moment 1800–1840

chapter 3|39 pages

Selim III and the Ottoman revolution

ByVirginia Aksan

chapter 4|33 pages

Mahmud II: An Ottoman “Reign of Terror”

ByVirginia Aksan

part III|82 pages

The new Muslim absolutism 1840–1870

chapter 5|37 pages

The great transformation

ByVirginia Aksan

chapter 6|43 pages

Imperial survival: the Crimean War

ByVirginia Aksan

part IV|112 pages

The final curtain: Imperial reordering and collapse 1870-1923

chapter 7|44 pages

Ottomanism and its rivals

ByVirginia Aksan

chapter 8|42 pages

1878 Berlin Treaty and consequences

ByVirginia Aksan

chapter 9|24 pages

Leadup to WWI

ByVirginia Aksan

chapter |19 pages

Epilogue: 1914–1923

ByVirginia Aksan

chapter |3 pages

Glossary of places

ByVirginia Aksan

chapter |3 pages

Glossary of terms

ByVirginia Aksan