This book explores the territories where manual, graphic, photographic, and digital techniques interfere and interlace in sciences and humanities.

It operates on the assumption that when photography was introduced, it did not oust other methods of image production but rather became part of ever more specialized and sophisticated technologies of representation. The epistemological break commonly set with the advent of photography since the nineteenth century has probably been triggered by photographic techniques but certainly owes much to the availability of a plethora of hybrid media—media that influence the relation of sciences, humanities, and their methods and subjects.

This book will be of interest to scholars in art and visual culture, photography, and history of photography.

chapter |5 pages


Where does photography start? And where does it end? A hybrid introduction

part 1|60 pages

Hybrid measurement

chapter 1|17 pages

Hybrid photography in the history of science

The case of astronomical practice

chapter 2|13 pages

The map as a photograph

Theodor Scheimpflug’s balloon aerial photogrammetry

chapter 3|16 pages

Seen from above

Wilhelm Halffter’s photographs of 1854, depicting the terrain models of Hermann and Adolph Schlagintweit

chapter 4|10 pages

In order of disappearance

Photography, measurement, and art historical practice in nineteenth-century Germany

part 2|61 pages

Hybrid materiality

chapter 5|8 pages


Aligning bodies and imaging technologies

chapter 6|10 pages

Beyond retouching

Hans Virchow’s mixed media and his X-ray drawings of the lotus foot

chapter 7|13 pages

From photography to printing

The chronophotography of Etienne-Jules Marey 1

chapter 8|12 pages

Entangled environments

Diorama, photography, and the staging of natural surroundings

part 3|68 pages

Hybrid reproduction

chapter 10|11 pages

“The camera that takes a face can take a page”

Microfilm as a scientific aid

chapter 11|10 pages

Stereo atlases as hybrid knowledge

chapter 12|13 pages

Retouching, staging, and authenticity

Early animal photography and the tradition of popular zoological illustration around 1900

chapter 13|8 pages

“Offering pleasures to the eye”

Max Semrau’s Kunst des Altertums (1899), its illustrations, and art history’s ignorance toward reproduction

chapter 14|23 pages

Fantasy of a world without humans