Virtual Aesthetics in Architecture: Designing in Mixed Realities presents a curated selection of projects and texts contributed by leading international architects and designers who are using virtual reality technologies in their design process. It triggers discussion and debate on exploring the aesthetic potential and establishing its language as an expressive medium in architectural design. Although virtual reality is not new and the technology has evolved rapidly, the aesthetic potential of the medium is still emerging and there is a great deal more to explore.

The book provides a comprehensive overview of the current use of virtual reality technologies in the architectural design process. Contributions are presented in six parts, fully illustrated with over 150 images.

Recent projects presented are distributed in five themes: introduction to mixed realities; space and form; context and ambiguity; materiality and movement; body and social. Each theme includes richly illustrated essays by leading academics and practitioners, including those from Zaha Hadid Architects and MVRDV, detailing their design process using data-driven methodologies.

Virtual Aesthetics in Architecture expands the use of technology per se and focuses on how architecture can benefit from its aesthetic potential during the design process. A must-read for practitioners, academics, and students interested in cutting-edge digital design.

part 1|49 pages


chapter 1|7 pages

A Concise History of VR/AR in Architecture

ByHenri Achten

chapter 2|11 pages

Models and Fictions

The Archi-tectonic of Virtual Reality
ByFederico Ruberto

chapter 3|13 pages

Cybernetic Aesthetics

ByHelmut Kinzler, Daria Zolotareva, Risa Tadauchi

chapter 4|9 pages

Wish You Were Here

BySean Pickersgill

chapter 5|7 pages

How Architects are using Immersive Technology Today, and Projections for the Future

ByDustin Schipper, Brittney Holmes

part 2|26 pages

Space and Form

chapter 6|7 pages

Reconceptualizing Zoos Through Mille-Oeille

A Posthuman Techno-Architecture to Sustain a Human/Non-Human/Culture Continuum
ByElena Pérez Guembe, Rosana Rubio Hernández

chapter 7|5 pages

An Augmented Reality-Based Mobile Environment for the Early Architectural Design Stage

ByMehmet Emin Bayraktar, Gülen Çağdaş

chapter 8|6 pages

Nordic Daylight in 360°

ByAnette Kreutzberg

chapter 9|6 pages

Cyber-Physical Experiences

Architecture as Interface
ByTuran Akman, Ming Tang

part 3|27 pages

Context and Ambiguity

chapter 10|10 pages

A Quasi-Real Virtual Reality Experience

Point Cloud Navigation
ByJoana Gomes, Sara Eloy, Nuno Pereira da Silva, Ricardo Resende, Luís Dias

chapter 11|6 pages

VR as a Tool for Preserving Architectural Heritage in Conflict Zones

The Case of Palestine
ByRamzi Hassan

chapter 12|9 pages

Ephemeral Monuments

BySpyridoula Dedemadi, Spiros I. Papadimitriou

part 4|25 pages

Materiality and Movement

chapter 13|7 pages

Action Over Form

Combining Off-Loom Weaving and Augmented Reality in a Non-Specification Model of Design
ByJames Forren, Makenzie Ramadan, Sebastien Sarrazin

chapter 14|7 pages

Blending Realities

From Digital to Physical and Back to Digital
ByIoanna Symeonidou

chapter 15|9 pages

The Robotic Dance

A Fictional Narrative of a Construction Built by Drones
BySara Eloy, Nuno Pereira da Silva

part 5|25 pages

Body and Social

chapter 16|9 pages

Designing the Bodily Metaverse of Lisbon

ByMarkéta Gebrian, Miloš Florián, Sara Eloy

chapter 17|8 pages

Inceptive Reality

ByCarla Leitão

chapter 18|6 pages

Virtual Reality in Landscape Design

Findings From Experimental Participatory Set-Ups
ByAna Moural, Ramzi Hassan

part 6|71 pages


chapter 6.1|18 pages

Creating Space

chapter 19|7 pages

ZHVR Bigworld

ByHelmut Kinzler, Risa Tadauchi, Daria Zolotareva

chapter 20|5 pages

The Aesthetics of Hybrid Space

ByRuth Ron, Renate Weissenböck

chapter 21|4 pages

Voxelco—Playing with Collaborative Objects

ByAlexander Grasser

chapter 6.2|29 pages

Experiencing Space

chapter 22|8 pages

MVRDV Virtual Space

ByMaría López Calleja

chapter 23|4 pages

The Digital Archive

ByEva Castro

chapter 24|5 pages

Sirius Gardens—The Building

BySean Pickersgill, Jason Semanic, Chris Traianos

chapter 25|4 pages

Form Axioms

‘The Politics of Mapping the Invisible’
ByEva Castro

chapter 26|6 pages

Oh Ambient Demons

Ringlets of Kronos + Coronis 2020, Decoded
ByMarcos Novak

chapter 6.3|21 pages

Enhancing Space

chapter 27|3 pages

Sky Gazing Tower

ByKyriaki Goti, Christopher Morse

chapter 28|4 pages


ByRudolf Romero

chapter 29|4 pages

Perspectiva Virtualis

ByJulien Rippinger, Arthur Lachard

chapter 30|4 pages

Holo-Sensory Materiality

ByMarcus Farr, Andrea Macruz

chapter 31|4 pages

Porifera Suspended Topologies

ByPablo Baquero, Effimia Giannopoulou, Ioanna Symeonidou, Nuno Pereira da Silva