This book brings together some of the finest academics in the field to address important questions around the way in which people experience their physical environments, including temperature, light, air-quality, acoustics and so forth. It is of importance not only to the comfort people feel indoors, but also the success of any building as an environment for its stated purpose. The way in which comfort is produced and perceived has a profound effect on the energy use of a building and its resilience to the increasing dangers posed by extreme weather events, and power outages caused by climate change. Research on thermal comfort is particularly important not only for the health and well-being of occupants but because energy used for temperature control is responsible for a large part of the total energy budget of the built environment.

In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the vulnerabilities of the thermal comfort system; how and why are buildings failing to provide safe and agreeable thermal environments at an affordable price? Achieving comfort in buildings is a complex subject that involves physics, behaviour, physiology, energy conservation, climate change, and of course architecture and urban design. Bringing together the related disciplines in one volume lays strong, multi-disciplinary foundations for new research and design directions for resilient 21st century architecture. This book heralds workable solutions and emerging directions for key fields in building the resilience of households, organisations and populations in a heating world.

part Part 1|52 pages

New approaches to comfort, occupants and resilience

chapter 1|20 pages

The shapes of thermal comfort and resilience

ByFergus Nicol

chapter 3|14 pages

Why occupants need a role in building operation

A framework for resilient design
ByLisa Heschong, Julia K. Day

part Part II|35 pages

Climate change and comfort

chapter 5|17 pages

Resilient design in extreme climates

5-step overheating assessment method for naturally ventilated buildings
ByDaniel Zepeda-Rivas, Jorge Rodríguez-Álvarez, José Roberto García-Chávez

part Part III|67 pages

Sleep and comfort for the old and the young

chapter 6|17 pages

Summertime indoor temperatures and thermal comfort in nursing care homes in London

ByRajat Gupta, Alastair Howard

chapter 7|20 pages

Assessing human resilience

A study of thermal comfort, well-being and health of older people
ByTerence Williamson, Veronica Soebarto, Helen Bennetts, Larissa Arakawa Martins, Dino Pisaniello, Alana Hansen, Renuka Visvanathan, Andrew Carre, Joost van Hoof

chapter 8|13 pages

Do children feel warmer than adults? Overheating prevention in schools in the face of climate change

ByMarije te Kulve, Runa T. Hellwig, Froukje van Dijken, Atze Boerstra

chapter 9|15 pages

Causes and effects of partial cooling during sleep

ByNoriko Umemiya, Yuhan Chen

part Part IV|119 pages

Resilient design for buildings and cities

chapter 10|16 pages

Overheating and passive cooling strategies in low-income residential buildings in Abuja, Nigeria

ByMichael U. Adaji, Timothy O. Adekunle, Richard Watkins

chapter 11|18 pages

The devolution of thermal resilience in residential houses in Khartoum

ByHuda Z.T. Elsherif, Marialena Nikolopoulou, Henrik Schoenefeldt

chapter 12|17 pages

Design of adaptive opportunities for people in buildings

ByRuna T. Hellwig, Despoina Teli, Marcel Schweiker, Joon-Ho Choi, M.C. Jeffrey Lee, Rodrigo Mora, Rajan Rawal, Zhaojun Wang, Farah Al-Atrash

chapter 13|13 pages

Resiliency lessons of traditional living in nomadic yurts

ByDolaana Khovalyg

chapter 14|18 pages

Passive cooling strategies for low carbon architecture

ByPablo La Roche

chapter 15|18 pages

Passive design for extreme heat

The Austrian Pavilion at EXPO 2020 in Dubai
ByGeorgios Gourlis, Peter Holzer

chapter 16|17 pages

Studying outdoor thermal comfort and resilience in an urban design perspective

A case study in IPOH Old Town and New Town, Malaysia
ByMei-Yee Teoh, Michihiko Shinozaki, Kei Saito, Ismail Said

part Part V|101 pages

Resilience and comfort in offices

chapter 17|21 pages

Adaptive approaches to enhancing resilient thermal comfort in Japanese offices

ByHom B. Rijal, Michael A. Humphreys, Fergus Nicol

chapter 18|15 pages

Thermal comfort and occupant disposition in mixed-mode offices in a Brazilian subtropical climate

ByRicardo Forgiarini Rupp, Jørn Toftum, Enedir Ghisi

chapter 19|14 pages

Tools and rules for behavioural agency in buildings

Minimizing energy use while maintaining comfort
ByJulia K. Day

chapter 20|18 pages

Mixed mode is better than air-conditioned offices for resilient comfort

Adaptive behaviour and Visual Thermal Landscaping
BySally Shahzad, Hom B. Rijal

chapter 21|16 pages

Effects of light and ambient temperature on visual and thermal appraisals

ByMaaike Kompier, Karin Smolders, Yvonne de Kort

chapter 22|15 pages

Reaching thermal comfort zone limits for resilient building operation

A winter case study for offices
ByDolaana Khovalyg, Verena M. Barthelmes, Arnab Chatterjee

part Part VI|67 pages

Indoor environmental quality, energy and life cycle analysis

chapter 23|17 pages

Methodology of IEQ assessment in energy-efficient buildings

ByKarel Kabele, Zuzana Veverková, Miroslav Urban

chapter 24|19 pages

Flexible future comfort

BySanober Hassan Khattak, Andrew Wright, Sukumar Natarajan

chapter 25|16 pages

Sight beyond reach

Dynamic life cycle assessment to support resilient retrofit decision-making in a changing climate
ByVanessa Gomes, Marcella R. M. Saade, Leticia O. Neves, Iris Loche, Lizzie M. Pulgrossi, Maristela G. Silva

chapter 26|13 pages

Indoor environmental quality, energy efficiency and thermal comfort in the retrofitting of housing

A literature review
ByMarco Ortiz, Philomena M. Bluyssen

part Part VII|47 pages

The role of ventilation and radiation in cooling and heating

chapter 27|16 pages

Double skin buildings and resilience for commercial buildings

ByEusébio Conceição, João Gomes, Mª Inês Conceição, Mª Manuela Lúcio, Hazim Awbi

chapter 28|14 pages

Cooling with thermally activated, radiative surfaces

Resilient answers to upcoming cooling needs, extending the application range of adaptive comfort
ByPeter Holzer, David Stuckey

chapter 29|15 pages

Rethinking radiant comfort

ByEric Teitelbaum, Forrest Meggers

part Part VIII|33 pages

National databases and comfort education

chapter 30|16 pages

Towards resilient cooling possibilities for Brazilians' hot and humid climates

Exploring the national thermal comfort database
ByCarolina Buonocore, Renata De Vecchi, Greici Ramos, Maira Andre, Christhina Candido, Roberto Lamberts

chapter 31|15 pages

Teaching comfort

Critical approaches, digital interventions and contemporary choices
ByOla Uduku, BK Satish, Gillian Treacy, Yiqianq Zhao

part Part IX|53 pages


chapter 33|31 pages


Trust, windows and the psychology of resilience
BySusan Roaf

part Part X|41 pages

The past and future of comfort standards

chapter 34|39 pages

Resilient comfort standards

BySusan Roaf, Fergus Nicol