This volume covers the "middle" time period of the Syrian uprising, roughly from 2012 when Syria’s peaceful protest began to mutate into a violent insurgency and civil war until roughly 2018 when the conflict took on features of a "frozen conflict".

The middle period was important as one of key junctures or turning points when the struggle could have reached rather different outcomes. Non-violent protest failed to drive democratization and turned into violent insurrection but revolution from below also failed as did regime counter-insurgency, leaving protracted civil war the default outcome. Second, the consequences of civil war became evident with six themes: failing statehood coexisted with regime resilience; rebel governance emerged as a viable challenge to the regime; social forces were sharply polarized; external actors exacerbated internal divisions; a predatory war economy emerged; and intense violence led to massive displacement of the population.

Taking an innovative and interdisciplinary approach that seeks to capture the full complexity of the phenomenon, this book contributes significantly to our understanding of the Syrian conflict, therefore it will be of interest to academics, students, journalists and policy-makers interested in the Syrian civil war.

chapter 1|32 pages

The Syrian Uprising

Between Peaceful Protest and State Failure

part I|83 pages

Critical Junctures

chapter 2|23 pages

Governance Amidst Civil War

From Failing Statehood to Competitive Regime Reformation

chapter 4|18 pages

The Syrian Civil War's 2015 Impasse

How Russia's Intervention Turned the Tide

chapter 5|21 pages

International Conflict Mediation in Syria

From ‘Transformation’ to ‘Containment’

part II|83 pages

Local Contentious Politics

chapter 6|21 pages

The Struggle for Territory

A Study of Territorial Fragmentation and Competitive Governance in Syria through Three Case Studies, 2011̶2014

chapter 7|24 pages

The Syrian Interim Government

Potential Thwarted by Domestic ‘Irrelevance’ and Foreign Neglect

chapter 8|18 pages

Who Owns the Law?

Logics of Insurgent Courts in the Syrian War (2012–2017)

part III|76 pages

Militarisation, Division, and Regime Resilience

chapter 11|22 pages

Tribes at War

The Struggle for Syria

chapter 13|25 pages

How Did Muhajiroun become Jihadists?

Foreign Fighters and the Geopolitics of the Conflict in Syria

part IV|77 pages

The War Economy

chapter 15|37 pages

Syria's Banking Sector

From Crony Capitalism to a Survivalist Strategy During the Syrian Conflict

chapter 16|16 pages

Division and Cooperation among Syrian Businesspeople in Turkey

An Investigation of the Political and Economic Behaviour of Syrian Business Migrants

part V|76 pages

Transnationalism in the Syrian Conflict

chapter 18|23 pages

Syrian intellectuals and the media

Competing narratives and discursive wars

chapter 19|13 pages

The Syrian Humanitarian Disaster

Understanding Perceptions and Aspirations in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey

chapter 20|21 pages

Translocal activism and the Syrian struggle in global politics

Civil society, agency, and ‘new’ political spaces