The Routledge Handbook of Far‐Right Extremism in Europe is a timely and important study of the far and extreme right-wing phenomenon across a broad spectrum of European countries, and in relation to a selected list of core areas and topics such as anti‐gender, identitarian politics, hooliganism, and ideology.

The handbook deals with the rise and the developments of the far‐right movements, parties, and organisations across diverse countries in Europe. Crucially it discusses the main topics and features issues pertaining to the far‐right ideology and positioning, and considers how central and less central actors of the far‐right milieus have fared within the given context. Comprising a wide range of subject expertise, the contributors focus on far-right organisations on the margins of the electoral sphere, as well as street‐level movements, and the relationship between them and electoral politics. The handbook spans nearly twenty European country‐cases, grouped according to geographical/regional area. It includes case studies where the far right has gained increased momentum, as well as countries where it has been much less successful in mobilising public opinion and electorate. Another important feature is the inclusion of street‐level mobilisations, such as football firms, thereby expanding and updating existing research, which is primarily focused on political parties and organisations.

Multidisciplinary and comprehensive, this handbook will be of great interest to scholars and students of Criminology, Political Science, Extremism Studies, European Studies, Media and Communication, and Sociology.


Katherine Kondor and Mark Littler

PART I – Eastern Europe

1. The far-right, football hooligans and their instrumentalization by an authoritarian regime: Serbia as case study

Jovo Bakić

2. The Far Right in Ukraine

Tamta Gelashvili

3. The Russian far right: A changing landscape of spaces of hate

Mihai Varga

PART II – Central Europe

4. The importance of subnational politics for far-right strength: The east-west divide in Germany

Sabine Volk and Manes Weisskircher

5. The Austrian far right: historical continuities and the case of the Ulrichsberg commemorations

Michael Zeller

6. Four Cycles of the Czech Far-Right’s Contention

Jan Charvát , Ondřej Slačálek, and Eva Svatoňová

7. Hungary’s goulash-nationalism: The tough stew of the Hungarian far right

Katherine Kondor and Rudolf Paksa

PART III – Southern Europe

8. The New Populist Radical Right in Portugal: the Chega party

Riccardo Marchi

9. The Radicalisation of the Mainstream: Populist Radical Right Parties and Extreme Right-Wing Movements in Italy (2012-2022)

Valerio Alfonso Bruno and James Downes

10. Far Right in Greece: A foretold story

Vasiliki Tsagkroni

11. The Greek-Cypriot far-right space, its history and ELAM’s trajectory

Giorgos Charalambous

PART IV – Northern Europe

12. The evolution of the extreme right in Norway since 1990s

Anders Ravik Jupskås and Tore Bjørgo

13. The far right in Sweden

Anders Widfeldt

14. The shift to the right in Denmark

Mette Wiggen

PART V – Western Europe

15. The French right

Nicolas LeBourg and Marlène Laruelle

16. Alone at the Table: The Dutch Identitair Verzet and the European Identarian Movement

Sting Daniels and Yannick Veilleux-Lepage

17. Radical right-wing politics on the island of Ireland

Jim McAuley and Shaun McDaid

18. Towards a Truly Post-Organisational Movement? The Contemporary UK Far Right and its Organisational Trajectory since 2009

William Allchorn

EPILOGUE – Selected Current Issues in the European Far Right

19. ‘America coughs, and we catch a cold’: Mapping the relationship between the American far right and British and European activism

Paul Jackson

20. Gendering the Far-Right Continuum in Europe

Cristian Ov Norocel

21. Misogyny as a Gateway to Far-Right Hate: A Quantitative Exploration in Great Britain

Antoinette Huber, Gavin Hart, and Mark Littler