This book studies how marginality impacts the everyday lives of Indian Muslims. It challenges the prevailing myths and stereotypes through which Indian Muslims have come to be seen in the popular imagination. The volume engages with questions of citizenship, collective violence, and issues of civil and criminal jurisprudence. It explores the linkages between development, marginality, and citizenship—the three critical issues for modern democracies today. Going beyond the singular narrative of a community on a continuous slide, the chapters in this volume present diversities of the Muslim experience of exclusion and participation. It discusses themes such as violence and marginality among minorities, Indian Muslims and the ghettoised economy, employment aspirations of low-income Muslim men, intergenerational social mobility of Muslims, the nature of the middle class, and the question of Islam, development and globalization to showcase the living conditions of Muslims in India.


Part of the Religion and Citizenship series, this timely volume will be an essential read for scholars and researchers of political studies, sociology, political sociology, minority studies, public policy, religion, citizenship studies, diversity and inclusion studies and social anthropology.

Introduction: The Muslim Question in Contemporary India     

Tanweer Fazal, Divya Vaid, Surinder S. Jodhka


Section I: Development Trajectories          

1.      Post-Sachar Indian Muslims: Facets of Socio-Economic Decline

Christophe Jaffrelot and Kalaiyarasan A


2.      Islam, Development and Globalization: Transformation of a Traditionalist Muslim Group in Kerala           

M. S. Visakh and R. Santhosh


3.      Degrees of Disadvantage: Degrees of Disadvantage: Education as Social Equalizer in India’s Labour Market?

MD Sanjeer Alam

Section II: Mobile Landscapes       

4.      Social Mobility Patterns, Opportunities and Barriers: Muslims in Contemporary India

Divya Vaid


5.      In the Middle of the Ocean and Land: Muslims of Mangalore

Shaunna Rodrigues


6.      The Old and the New Muslim Middle class: Classificatory Practices and Social Mobility

Tanweer Fazal


7.      Delayed and Depleted: In Search of The Missing Muslim Middle Class in India

Amir Ali


8.      Employment Aspirations of Low-Income Muslim Men in Delhi: Importance of Self-Employment in Jamia Nagar

Ashti Salman

Section III: Quest for Citizenship: Marginality, mobility and violence


9.      Economic marginalization and challenges to composite culture in the musical by-lanes of Banaras

Zarin Ahmad


10.  Indian Muslims and the Ghettoised Economy: The Role of Negative Emotions on Occupational Choices in the Urban Labour Markets  

Sumeet Mhaskar


11.  From the ‘Bigoted Julaha’ to the Terrorist: Political Economy of Stigma in Azamgarh

Manisha Sethi


12.  Marginality among Muslims in Kerala: The Case of Marakkayar Community

Salah Punathil