This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of MINURSO (the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara), focused on its activities, composition, purpose, and operational future in Western Sahara, the world’s last colony.

The book’s focus is broad, examining MINURSO from key historical, legal, military and political angles whilst assessing the future of UN peacekeeping missions in the Western Sahara. Supported by a diverse, international mix of perspectives and professions—including academics, lawyers, soldiers, and humanitarian aid workers—an in-depth view of MINURSO is provided, rooted in practical Western Saharan field experience. The authors reveal the complexities of the region and of the mission locally, but also analyze MINURSO through a global lens, focusing on relations with the United States, China, Russia, France, and African states. This approach emphasizes the importance of the region as a site of international struggle while remaining conscious of local contexts.

A landmark contribution to peacekeeping studies, the book is vital reading for practitioners and academics focused on the Western Saharan conflict and the MENA region, but will also be of interest to those engaged in international relations, international law, and security studies.

chapter 1|17 pages


Peacekeeping Operations in Situations of Conflict: The Case of MINURSO

part |77 pages

Part I

part |62 pages

Part II

chapter 6|12 pages

Human Rights

MINURSO between a Rock and a Hard Place

chapter 7|24 pages

Participation of Women in the MINURSO

Scope, Evolution, and Factors for the Contribution to the Mission

part |68 pages

Part III

part |96 pages

Part IV

chapter 13|16 pages

The United States and MINURSO

31 Years

chapter 14|13 pages

China and the MINURSO

Eyes on Peak Phosphorus?

chapter 15|17 pages

Russia and MINURSO

This Is Not Our Conflict

chapter 16|15 pages

France and MINURSO

chapter 18|20 pages


A Mission for Maintaining the Status Quo? 1