The Politics of Replacement explores current demographic conspiracy theories and their entanglement with different forms of racism and exclusionary politics such as sexism.

The book focuses on population replacement conspiracy theories, that is, those imaginaries and discourses centered on the idea that the national population is under threat of being overtaken or even wiped out by those considered as “alien” to the nation and that this is the result of concerted efforts by “elites”. Replacement conspiracy theories are on the rise again: from Eurabia fantasies to Renaud Camus’ The Great Replacement, white supremacist discourses are thriving and increasingly broadcasting in mainstream venues. To account for their rise and spread, this edited volume brings together research on various dimensions of population replacement conspiracy theories: different theoretical and methodological approaches, different social scientific and humanities (inter)disciplinary backgrounds, different geographical case studies (across Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, and Oceania), different time periods (medieval archives, colonial archives, Nazi archives, postcolonial migrations, post-9/11), and different forms of racialization and racisms (Islamophobia, antisemitism, racism against migrants and refugees). It also explores the entanglement of population replacement discourse with gendered violence. The book is organized into four sections: (1) exploring the historical background of the current rise of demographic conspiracy theories; (2) tracing the (neoliberal) governmentalities in and through which replacement discourse operates; (3) analyzing the particularly intense focus on the threat of Muslims in contemporary replacement conspiracy theories, and (4) investigating the connection between replacement conspiracies, gender, and violence.

This title is essential reading for scholars, journalists, and activists interested in the contemporary far right, conspiracy theories, and racisms.

chapter |19 pages

The Politics of Replacement

From “Race Suicide” to the “Great Replacement”

part I|86 pages

Genealogies of Replacement

chapter 1|14 pages

Malthusian Fears in Current Migration Debates

Contemporary Manifestations of Malthusianization

chapter 2|14 pages

Das Boot ist voll, The Boat is Full

Genealogy and Policy Consequences of an Ecological-Nativist Paradigm

chapter 3|15 pages

Birth Rates and the Cleansing of Impure Blood

Shaping the “Muslim Question” in the Balkans

chapter 4|16 pages

“Reverse Colonization”

Early Narratives of Decline in the French New Right

chapter 5|13 pages

European Histories, Australian Anxieties

The Christchurch Killer in Context

part II|85 pages

Technologies of Replacement

chapter 7|16 pages

Colonial Census and Saffron Demography

The Shaping of Numerical Communities and Contestations in India

chapter 9|23 pages

The Affordances of Replacement Narratives

How the White Genocide and Great Replacement Theories Converge in Poorly Moderated Online Milieus

chapter 10|18 pages

Mainstreaming the Great Replacement

The Role of Centrist Discourses in the Mainstreaming of a Far-Right Conspiracy Theory

chapter 11|12 pages

From Clashing Civilizations to the Replacement of Populations

The Transformation of Dutch Anti-Immigration Discourse

part III|50 pages

Islamophobia and Replacement

chapter 13|11 pages

The Gastro-Politics of Replacement

How Imaginations of a Muslim Takeover Become “Real” Through Food

chapter 14|12 pages

Striving for Transparency

Mosques as Sites of Public Interrogation in Contemporary Germany

chapter 15|12 pages

The Great Supersession

Racialization and Replacement in American Evangelical Islamophobia

part IV|43 pages

The Gendered Violence of Replacement

chapter 17|12 pages

“A Victory for White Life”

Reproduction, Replacement, and a Handmaid's Tale

chapter 18|12 pages

The King of Tars

A Medieval Rendition of Replacement Theories