This book critically examines the approaches to Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants programming in Africa.

Drawing on empirical evidence from across the continent, the book investigates the different theories, contextual realities and approaches that have informed the establishment and implementation of such programmes, the opportunities they have provided for stability, peace and security, and the challenges with which they have contended. The book combines broader theoretical analysis with country-specific case studies, including Nigeria, the Central African Republic, South Sudan, Somalia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi, Zimbabwe, South Africa, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Overall, the book asks how DDR programming has evolved in Africa, what factors have contributed to the success or failure of DDR processes, and what we can expect for DDR in Africa in the future.

This book will be a useful guide for students and researchers across the fields of Peace and Conflict Studies, Security Studies, History, Political Science, Sociology, and African Studies.

Part I: Conceptual and Contextual Background

  1. Introduction: DDR in Theory and Practice in Africa and Beyond: Emerging Trends and Frameworks
  2. Ibrahim Bangura

  3. Lessons from the African Union’s Engagement on DDR in Africa
  4. Augustine Owusu, Rhoda Mwende Kiilu and Shreya Paudel

    Part II: Concepts, Contexts and Themes

  5. Linking Transitional Justice and Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration in Africa: A Practical Analysis
  6. Mohamed Suma

  7. Release and Reintegration of Children Formerly Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups in Africa: A Critical Reflection
  8. Fatuma Ibrahim

  9. Lessons Learned and Promising Approaches to Gender-Responsive DDR Programming in Africa
  10. Luisa Maria Dietrich Ortega

  11. Emerging Trends: DDR and Countering Violent Extremism in Africa
  12. Ibrahim Bangura and Henry Mbawa

    Part III: Contextual Case Studies

  13. A Narrow and Uncertain Path: Operation Safe Corridor and the Defectors Programme in Northeast Nigeria
  14. Usman Tar and Sasilkar Banu

  15. Innovations to DDR to address the Identity-Based Violent Conflicts and Stabilise Combatants of Central African Republic
  16. Irma Specht

  17. Release and reintegration of the children of the White Army of South Sudan: Cultural Realities versus DDR Programming
  18. Irma Specht

  19. Connecting the Dots: DDR, Economic Recovery and Peacebuilding in the Democratic Republic of Congo
  20. Mark van Dorp

  21. Somalia: Towards a Fourth Generation DDR?
  22. Mohamed Gibril Sesay

  23. Incomplete Disarmament, Demobilisation, Rehabilitation and Reintegration (DDRR): A Prescription for Prolonged Fragility in Liberia
  24. Raphaela Tabea Kormoll and T. Debey Sayndee

  25. Interrogating DDR and Peacebuilding Experience in Post-War Sierra Leone
  26. Henry Mbawa

  27. A Contextual and Intersectional Analysis of Ex-Combatant Reintegration: The Case of Burundi
  28. Élise Féron

  29. From Combatants to Civilians: A Never-Ending Transition in Zimbabwe
  30. Godfrey Maringira; Edmore Chitukutuku and Simbarashe Gukurume

  31. When Ex-Combatants Return to Violent Townships: Expectations and Masculinities Among Azania People’s Liberation Army in South Africa
  32. Godfrey Maringira, Simbarashe Gukurume and Malose Langa


    Part V Drawing Conclusions

  33. Conclusion: Looking to the Future: DDR, Stabilisation and Peacebuilding in Africa Ibrahim Bangura