China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is completing a decade. There have been varied responses to the Initiative from countries and regions besides the emergence of alternative initiatives and narratives. This sets the stage for evaluating the robustness of the Initiative, its implementation as well as its implications from the perspective of individual countries and regions across the globe.

This book begins by examining China’s domestic, economic, maritime and strategic interests as drivers for the Initiative. BRI has been analysed in country-specific, regional and continental contexts. It brings out the experiences and responses from South Asia, Eurasia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Arab world, Latin America, the Caribbean as well as from Europe and Africa. Further, BRI has been studied in the larger context of the US-China competition. The final section explores BRI in the context of the twin challenges of recent times, i.e., the pandemic and Russia-Ukraine conflict. The book concludes with an epilogue which outlines the broad trends related to BRI that have emerged from this study of ICWA.


part Part I|62 pages

BRI: Thematic Perspectives

chapter 2|13 pages

Beijing's Ambitious 21st Century Maritime Silk Road

ByPragya Pandey

chapter 3|12 pages

Economic Implications of BRI

ByRahul Nath Choudhury

chapter 4|17 pages

The United States and China: The Strategic Competition and Response

ByStuti Banerjee, Ankita Dutta

part Part II|81 pages

BRI in South Asia

chapter 5|14 pages

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: Pursuing Agenda amid Conflict Situation

ByDhrubajyoti Bhattacharjee

chapter 6|16 pages

China and Bangladesh under the Rubric of BRI

ByTeshu Singh

chapter 7|23 pages

BRI in Sri Lanka and Maldives: Economic, Political and Security Dynamics

BySamatha Mallempati

chapter 8|12 pages

China's BRI in Nepal: Complexities and Concerns

ByKumar B. K. Naresh

chapter 9|14 pages

China, Afghanistan and BRI

ByAnwesha Ghosh

part Part III|93 pages

BRI in China's Neighbouring Regions: Eurasia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia

chapter 10|12 pages

China's BRI and its Neo-mercantilist Approach in Central Asia

ByPunit Gaur

chapter 11|14 pages

Russia-China Cooperation and the BRI

ByHimani Pant

chapter 12|17 pages

Japan's Approach to BRI: Between Cooperation and Competition

ByJojin V. John

chapter 13|10 pages

BRI: Responses from South Korea

ByJojin V. John

chapter 14|15 pages

China-Mongolia Relations and the Economic Corridor

BySudeep Kumar

chapter 15|23 pages

Economic Statecraft through BRI in Southeast Asia

ByTemjenmeren Ao

part Part IV|30 pages

BRI in Arab World

chapter 16|12 pages

BRI and the WANA Region: An Assessment

ByFazzur Rahman Siddiqui

chapter 17|15 pages

BRI: An Era of New Arab-China Engagement


part Part V|61 pages

BRI in Continental Context: Europe, Africa and Latin America

chapter 18|22 pages

BRI: Narratives and Counter-Narratives from Europe

ByAnkita Dutta

chapter 19|17 pages

BRI in Africa: From Enthusiasm to Dilemma

BySankalp Gurjar

chapter 20|20 pages

BRI in Latin America and Caribbean: Expectations and Challenges

ByStuti Banerjee

part Part VI|24 pages

BRI and Two Challenges of Recent Times

chapter 21|12 pages

BRI: Challenges of Pandemic and Conflict

ByAthar Zafar

chapter 22|10 pages

Epilogue: Regions and Reflections

BySanjeev Kumar