ABSTRACT

First Published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

chapter 1|10 pages

SOCIAL SECURITY

BySOCIAL security is a new concept and it represents society's current answer to the problem of economic insecurity. It has evolved out of previous methods used to deal with the same problem. A number of textbooks have been written charting this

part |1 pages

Social Security

chapter 2|6 pages

THE SCOPE OF SOCIAL SECURITY

chapter |7 pages

Self-

employed contributions made up 6.3% of the total number of contributions in 1950 and 5.7% in 1965. The decline was com- pletely in women self-employed persons. This differential treatment of self-employed persons has never been questioned seriously and it was accepted also by the 1959

chapter |15 pages

itself.' The largest number of certificates varied himself.

by the Registrar follows the application of the employer This happened in cases where the nature of the employment had changed or ceased. In a small number of cases, however, the Registrar had varied or cancelled certificates without the em- ployers' consent where he had established that the scheme did not

chapter 3|9 pages

THE COST OF SOCIAL SECURITY

BySOCIAL security is a complex system of vertical and horizontal income redistribution. It involves the collection of large sums of money from the general population and the allocation of these sums to groups of beneficiaries. This chapter examines the finan-

part |2 pages

self-

chapter 16|13 pages

when the increase occurs. Bearing in mind that

Bybenefits are being constantly increased, this involves a constant subsidy from the Exchequer. For this reason the Phillips Report suggested that when increases in benefits are made, contributions should be increased not as if the entire insured population was aged 16 but beyond that to take account of the fact that the great

chapter |3 pages

of Social Security

chapter 4|26 pages

ADMINISTRATION OF SOCIAL SECURITY

chapter |6 pages

as the Chairman. Its membership

Byincludes M.P.s, M.P.N.I. high ranking civil servants, represen- tatives of the local war pensions committees, ex-service men's organisations and relevant welfare organisations. It meets infrequently (it met only once in 1965) and it deals with questions of general policy and administration.

chapter 5|16 pages

Chapter Five

chapter 6|5 pages

SICKNESS AND MATERNITY BENEFITS

part |1 pages

is extremely difficult. It is more than likely for married women are due to the fact that they to resume work as the It is unlikely that married women suffer from more of the insured population. for sickness benefit in a year not increase with age. In fact some of the younger age a substantial part of the longer of sickness benefit in the older age-groups is due to of illness rather than more frequent spells. Whether are due to more serious illnesses or to other the self-employed is due more to less of illness. These

chapter 26|13 pages

below all four groups - 32% of the employed men,

shows. The proportion of those who were ill for over one year was about the same in 40% of the self-employed men, 37% of the employed married women and 40% of the employed single women. The proportion, however, of those ill for over eight years was double for women

part |1 pages

is paid at a reduced rate, then any increase which can be

chapter 7|13 pages

DEATH BENEFITS

Benefits

chapter 8|14 pages

RETIREMENT PENSIONS

chapter 65|8 pages

was nearly 40%. In 1957 it was 43%, in

1960 49% and in 1963, 54%. A similar trend applies to women also. Reductions in the proportions of people retiring at the initial age are bound to affect the proportions at work in sub- sequent ages. Under the National Insurance Act, 1957, people who have retired are enabled to go back to work if they wish and

chapter 9|12 pages

INDUSTRIAL INJURY BENEFITS

chapter |5 pages

is only 3.5% of the all those assessed at 100% disability, to 330 at the end of 1964. is the difference

15-19 to 25% for the age-group 60-64. Older persons are less likely to be able to take up their old occupation or another of equivalent standard than younger persons because physical adaptability decreases in older ages and also because of employers' attitudes towards the employment of elderly disabled persons. Of

part 10|1 pages

ALLOWANCES FOR CHILDREN

part 11|1 pages

I I NATIONAL ASSISTANCE

chapter |6 pages

National Assistance provided and 1948 a number of Acts

his requirements and, if they are lower, to provide him with an assistance allowance equivalent to the difference between the two. What constitutes a person's resources and requirements is a matter of opinion and the various Acts which have attempted to define them reflect the prevalent public opinion on the nature of

chapter |5 pages

National Assistance Assistance Allowances

Bygrowth of discretionary additions. Moreover, while the value of discretionary additions increased over the years, the value of the exceptional needs grant has declined from an average of £3 10s. od. in 1949 to £4 5s. od. in 1965 at current prices or about half that amount at 1949 prices.

chapter |7 pages

National Assistance

part 12|2 pages

I2 SOCIAL SECURITY, THE ECONOMY AND THE STATE

chapter |8 pages

? If they are, state intervention will

Bybe just as extensive as it is today but it will assume a different form. If they are not, the state will be subsidising pension schemes over which it has no control. All the suggestions for dismantling the state social security system have assumed uncritically that real incomes have risen so

chapter |3 pages

APPENDICES

chapter 1962|1 pages

- May 1963 per Ioo Insured Persons in the APPENDIX IV

£ s.
ByAge-Group. Gt. Britain.