ABSTRACT

Systems Research for Behavioral Science will be of interest to those in any discipline concerned with developments in science. It is addressed principally to the student of human behavior as that study is approached from the social side.Previously, the study of human behavior was the general area of science that had been slowest to respond to the exciting challenge of the modern systems outlook. Yet it is behavioral science that stands to gain the most from insights into the workings of more complex systems.

The editor presents not only a fair selection of systems research in behavioral science, but also provides an extensive selection of important statements of general principles, including several already considered classics. Hence, this sourcebook may function in part as a principles text, exposing the initiate to original pioneering statements as well as later work inspired by them, and alerting the sizeable number of underexposed scholars who are over-familiar with the few terms such as feedback, boundary, input, and output, that there are much greater depths to plumb than meet the eye in semi-popular accounts of cybernetics.

This volume is an overview of thinking that reflects a trend toward the system point of view. Some of the chapters are philosophical: they discuss the significance of the trend as a development in the contemporary philosophy of science. Some are inevitably detailed and technical. Still other chapters discuss the relevance of concepts that are central in the system approach, to particular fields of research. The picture that emerges is far from that of a unified theory. It is an open question whether much progress can be made by attempts to construct a "unified theory of systems" on some rigorous axiomatic base.

part 1|2 pages

General Systems Research : Overview

chapter 1|10 pages

General Systems Theory—The Skeleton of Science

ByWalter Buckley, Kenneth E. Boulding

chapter 2|20 pages

General System Theory—a Critical Review

ByWalter Buckley, Ludwig Von Bertalanffy

chapter 3|6 pages

Cybernetics in History

ByWalter Buckley, Norbert. Wiener

part 2|2 pages

Parts, Wholes, and Levels of Integration

chapter 4|6 pages

Parts and Wholes in Physics

ByWalter Buckley, Purcell Edward

chapter 5|6 pages

The problem of Systemic Organization in Theoretical Biology

ByWalter Buckley, K. M. Khailov

chapter 6|8 pages

Units and Concepts of Biology

ByWalter Buckley, R. W. Gerard

chapter 7|10 pages

Levels of Integration in Biological and Social Systems

ByWalter Buckley, Robert Redfield

part 3|2 pages

Systems, Organization, and the Logic of Relations

chapter 8|5 pages

Thoughts on Organization Theory

ByAnatol Rapoport, William J. Horvath

chapter 10|12 pages

Definition of System

ByA. D. Hall, R. E. Fagen

chapter 11|4 pages

A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity

ByWarren S. Mcculloch, Walter H. Pitts

chapter 12|11 pages

The General and Logical Theory of Automata

ByJohn von Neumann

chapter 13|11 pages

Principles of the Self-Organizing System

ByW. Ross Ashby

part 4|4 pages

Information, Communication, and Meaning

chapter 14|6 pages

What is Information Measurement?

ByGeorge A. Miller

chapter 15|8 pages

Variety, Constraint, and the Law of Requisite Variety

ByW. Ross Ashby

chapter 16|7 pages

The Promise and Pitfalls of Information Theory

ByRapoport Anatol

part A|1 pages

Entropy And Life

chapter 17|4 pages

Order, Disorder, and Entropy

BySchrödinger Erwin

chapter 18|10 pages

Life, Thermodynamics, and Cybernetics

ByL. Brillouin

chapter 19|4 pages

Communication, Entropy, and Life

ByRichard C. Raymond

chapter 20|5 pages

Thermodynamics and Information Theory

ByL. Brillouin

chapter 21|4 pages

The Entropy Concept and Psychic Function

ByOstow Mortimer

chapter 22|12 pages

From Stimulus to Symbol: The Economy of Biological Computation

ByFoerster Heinz Von

part B|1 pages

Behavior And Meaning

chapter 23|4 pages

The Application of Information Theory in Behavioral Studies

ByF. c. Frick

chapter 24|18 pages

A Behavioristic Analysis of Perception and Language as Cognitive Phenomena

ByCharles E. Osgood

chapter 25|5 pages

The Informational Analysis of Questions and Commands

ByDonald M. Mackay

chapter 26|10 pages

Towards a Behavioral Theory of Communication

ByRussell L. Ackoff

part 5|1 pages

Cybernetics:Purpose, Self-Regulation, and Self-Direction

part A|1 pages

Cybernetics and Purpose

chapter 27|5 pages

Behavior, Purpose, and Teleology

ByArturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener, Julian Bigelow

chapter 28|6 pages

Comments on a Mechanistic Conception of Purposefulness

ByRichard Taylor

chapter 29|6 pages

Purposeful and Non-Purposeful Behavior

ByArturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener

chapter 30|5 pages

Purposeful and Non-Purposeful Behavior: A Rejoinder

ByRichard Taylor

chapter 31|7 pages

Purposive Behavior and Cybernetics

ByC. W. Churchman, R. L. Ackoff

chapter 32|7 pages

Purpose and Learning Theory

ByOmar K. Moore, Donald J. Lewis

part B|1 pages

Homeostasis and Evolution

chapter 33|4 pages

Self-Regulation of the Body

ByWalter B. Cannon

chapter 34|22 pages

On the Parallel between Learning and Evolution

ByJ. W. S. Pringle

chapter 35|15 pages

Purpose, Adaptation and “ Directive Correlation ”

ByG. Sommerhof

chapter 36|8 pages

Regulation and Control

ByAshby W. Ross

chapter 37|10 pages

The Second Cybernetics: Deviation-Amplifying Mutual Causal Processes

ByMaruyama Magoroh

part 6|2 pages

Self-Regulation and Self-Direction in Psychological Systems

chapter 38|4 pages

Feedback Theory and the Reflex Arc Concept

ByCharles W. Slack

chapter 39|9 pages

Plasticity In Human Sensorimotor Control

ByCharles W. Richard, Sanford J. Freedmans

chapter 40|7 pages

A Cybernetic Approach to Motivation

ByShibutani Tamotsu

chapter 41|6 pages

Ego Psychology, Cybernetics, and Learning Theory

ByO. H. Mowrer

chapter 42|8 pages

The Open System in Personality Theory

ByGordon W. Allport

chapter 43|8 pages

Note on Self-Regulating Systems and Stress

ByJoseph M. Notterman, Trumbull Richard

chapter 45|11 pages

Towards an Information-Flow Model of Human Behaviour

ByDonald M. Mackay

chapter 46|14 pages

Plans and the Structure of Behaviour

ByGeorge A. Miller, Galanter Eugene, Karl H. Pribram

part 7|4 pages

Self-Regulation and Self-Direction in Sociocultural Systems

chapter 47|14 pages

Toward a Cybernetic Model of Man and Society

ByKarl W. Deutsch

part A|1 pages

Social Control: Internal Variety and Constraints

chapter 48|8 pages

Social Control and Self-Regulation

ByS. F. Nadel

chapter 49|6 pages

Conformity-Deviation and the Social Control Concept

ByRoger Nett

chapter 50|5 pages

Variety and Constraint in Cultural Adaptation

ByRoger Owen

chapter 51|8 pages

A Behavioural Theory of Drug Taking

ByLeslie T. Wilkins

part B|1 pages

Social Control: Organizational Goal Seeking

chapter 52|9 pages

A Systems Analysis of Political Life

ByDavid Easton

chapter 53|4 pages

The Cybernetic Analysis of Change in Complex Social Organizations

ByMervyn L. Cadwallader

chapter 54|4 pages

Feedback Problems of Social Diagnosis and Action

ByKurt Lewin

chapter 55|4 pages

Control as an Organizational Process

ByChadwick J. Haberstroh

chapter 56|12 pages

The Cybernetics of Competition: A Biologist’s View of Society

ByHardin Garrett

chapter 57|14 pages

Is Adaptability Enough?

ByVickers Geoffrey

part C|1 pages

Decision Processes and Group Structure

chapter 58|16 pages

Critiques of Game Theory

ByAnatol Rapoport

chapter 59|24 pages

Society as a Complex Adaptive System

ByWalter Buckley