One doesn’t have to travel extensively to realize that there are intriguing differences in the ways in which people from different cultures tend to behave. Gartstein and Putnam explore whether these differences are shaped during the early years of life, at the moment when children are just beginning to understand how, when, and why they should express some emotions, and not others.

Based on the findings of the Joint Effort Toddler Temperament Consortium (JETTC), which asked parents from 14 different countries multiple questions regarding their main goals and techniques for raising children to be successful in their culture, Gartstein and Putnam analyze how children’s characteristics (both normative and problematic) are shaped by different cultural environments. Drawing from insights in anthropology, sociology, and developmental psychology, the book explores the full spectrum of human experience, from broad sets of values and concerns that differentiate populations down to the intimate details of parent-child relationships. The results reveal a complex web of interrelations among societal ideals, parental attempts to fulfill them, and the ways their children manifest these efforts. In doing so, they provide a revealing look at how families raise their young children around the world.

Toddlers, Parents, and Culture will be of great interest to students and scholars in temperament, cross-cultural psychology, parenting and socioemotional development in early childhood, as well as professionals in early education, child mental health, and behavioral pediatrics.

chapter 1|10 pages

Introduction to the Joint Effort Toddler Temperament Consortium (JETTC)

ByMaria A. Gartstein, Samuel P. Putnam, Helena Slobodskaya, Carolina de Weerth

chapter 2|15 pages

Methodology of the Joint Effort Toddler Temperament Consortium (JETTC)

BySamuel P. Putnam, Maria A. Gartstein, Sara Casalin, Carmen González-Salinas, Blanca Huitron, Sae-Young Han, Mirjana Majdandžić, Rosario Montirosso, Oana Benga, Ibrahim Acar, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares, Katri Räikkönen, Zhengyan Wang, Felipe Lecannelier, Roseriet Beijers, Elena Kozlova

part Part 1|29 pages

Temperament and Emerging Symptoms/ Behavior Problems

chapter 3|9 pages

Cross-Cultural Differences in Temperament

ByHelena Slobodskaya, Elena Kozlova, Sae-Young Han, Maria A. Gartstein, Samuel P. Putnam

chapter 4|8 pages

Cross-Cultural Differences in Behavior Problems

BySamuel P. Putnam, Sara Casalin, Blanca Huitron, Mirjana Majdandžić, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares

chapter 5|10 pages

Cross-Cultural Differences in Associations between Temperament and Behavior Problems

ByCarmen González-Salinas, Noelia Sánchez-Pérez, Luis J. Fuentes, Rosario Montirosso, Kati Heinonen

part Part 2|60 pages

The Developmental Niche

chapter 6|9 pages

Cross-Cultural Differences in Socialization Goals and Parental Ethnotheories

BySamuel P. Putnam, Maria A. Gartstein, Hannah Broos, Sara Casalin, Felipe Lecannelier

chapter 7|10 pages

Cross-Cultural Differences in Child Activities

ByEric Desmarais, Maria A. Gartstein, Zhengyan Wang, Emine Ahmetoglu, Roseriet Beijers

chapter 8|11 pages

Cross-Cultural Differences in Children’s Sleep

ByBlanca Huitron, Guadalupe Domínguez-Sandoval, Amanda Prokasky, Carmen González-Salinas, Sae-Young Han

chapter 9|12 pages

Cross-Cultural Differences in Discipline

BySamuel P. Putnam, Oana Benga, Rosario Montirosso, Mirjana Majdandžić, Sara Casalin

chapter 10|9 pages

Cross-Cultural Differences in Parents’ Responses to Child Temperament

BySae-Young Han, Seong-Yeon Park, Eun Gyoung Lee, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares, Helena Slobodskaya

chapter 11|7 pages

Integrating the Developmental Niche

Relations among Socialization Goals, Parental Ethnotheories, Daily Activities, and Parental Responses to Temperament
ByMirjana Majdandžić, Marlis Cornelia Kirchhoff, Katri Räikkönen, Oana Benga, Emine Ahmetoglu

part Part 3|69 pages

The Niche and the Child

chapter 12|6 pages

Socialization Goals, Parental Ethnotheories, Toddler Temperament, and Behavior Problems

ByRosario Montirosso, Lorenzo Giusti, Niccolò Butti, Zhengyan Wang, Mirjana Majdandžić

chapter 13|13 pages

Play/Activities, Temperament, and Behavior Problems

ByOana Benga, Georgiana Susa-Erdogan, Roseriet Beijers, Mirjana Majdandžić, Sara Casalin

chapter 14|10 pages

Sleep, Temperament, and Behavior Problems

ByAmanda Prokasky, Felipe Lecannelier, Noelia Sánchez-Pérez, Maria A. Gartstein

chapter 15|13 pages

Discipline, Temperament, and Behavior Problems

ByOana Benga, Georgiana Susa-Erdogan, Blanca Huitron, Elena Kozlova, Emine Ahmetoglu

chapter 16|8 pages

Parental Responses, Toddler Temperament, and Behavior Problems

ByIbrahim Acar, Amanda Prokasky, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares, Felipe Lecannelier, Samuel P. Putnam

chapter 17|7 pages

Bringing it all Together

Mediational Models
ByMaria A. Gartstein, Samuel P. Putnam, Mirjana Majdandžić, Soile Tuovinen, Eric Desmarais

chapter 18|10 pages

Summary and Future Directions

BySamuel P. Putnam, Maria A. Gartstein, Rosario Montirosso, Livio Provenzi, Zhengyan Wang