The Handbook of Distance Education, 4th Edition is a comprehensive compendium of research in the field of distance education. The volume is divided into four sections covering the historical and theoretical foundations of distance education, attributes of teaching and learning using technology, management and administration, and different audiences and providers. Throughout, leading scholars address future research needs and directions based on current research, established practices, and recent changes to implementation, pedagogy, and policy.

part 1|104 pages

Historical and Theoretical Foundations

chapter 1|16 pages

A History of Scholarship

ByLinda M. Black

chapter 2|13 pages

Charles A. Wedemeyer and the First Theorists

ByWilliam C. Diehl, Leslie Cano

chapter 3|15 pages

The Theory of Transactional Distance

ByMichael Grahame Moore

chapter 4|20 pages

Independent Learning

ByJon Dron

chapter 5|12 pages

The Community of Inquiry Theoretical Framework

Implications for Distance Education and Beyond
ByMartha Cleveland-Innes, D. Randy Garrison, Norman Vaughan

chapter 6|13 pages

Gender Still Matters in Distance Education

ByEdith Gnanadass, Amelia Y. Sanders

chapter 7|13 pages

The State of Research on Distance, Online, and Blended Learning

Meta-Analyses and Qualitative Systematic Reviews
ByRobert M. Bernard, Eugene Borokhovski, Rana M. Tamim

part 2|216 pages

Teaching and Learning

chapter 8|15 pages

Cognitive Perspectives on Online Learning Environments

ByRichard E. West, Janette R. Hill, Liyan Song

chapter 9|11 pages

Distance Learning and Student Satisfaction

ByMike Allen, Kikuko Omori, Andrew W. Cole, Nancy Burrell

chapter 10|12 pages

Instructional Strategies to Support Student Persistence

ByTina M. Stavredes, Tiffany M. Herder

chapter 11|13 pages

Motivation in Distance Education

ByMaggie Hartnett

chapter 12|15 pages

The Role of Academic Libraries

ByElaine Fabbro, Jennifer Rempel

chapter 13|16 pages

Current Research in Blended Learning

ByCharles R. Graham

chapter 14|18 pages

The Ethical Character of Distance Education

Relationship and Responsibility
ByMelody M. Thompson

chapter 15|7 pages

Mobile Learning and Distance Education

ByZane L. Berge

chapter 17|16 pages

The Use of Social Media in Higher Education Online and Blended Courses

ByPriya Sharma, Kimberly Tohill, Philip Tietjen, Mahir Akgun

chapter 18|16 pages

Frameworks for Designing and Analyzing Learning

Activity Interactions in Online Courses
ByVanessa P. Dennen

chapter 19|21 pages

Theory to Practice in Instructional Design

ByRick L. Shearer, Eunsung Park

chapter 20|14 pages

Active Learning Strategies for Optimal Learning

ByRebecca Heiser, Penny Ralston-Berg

chapter 21|16 pages

Is Technology Enabling or Disabling for Diverse Learners Studying Online?

ByShelley Kinash, James Birt, Madelaine-Marie Judd

part 3|122 pages

Management, Policy, and Administration

chapter 23|13 pages

Distance Education Leadership Reconsidered

ByMichael F. Beaudoin

chapter 24|15 pages

Needs Assessment and Strategic Planning in Distance Education

ByRay Schroeder, Vickie S. Cook

chapter 25|15 pages

U.S. Federal Policy in Distance Education

ByVan L. Davis

chapter 26|16 pages

Future of Work in a Globalized World

Relevance of MOOCs for Continuous Learning
BySheila Jagannathan

chapter 27|15 pages

Assuring Quality in Distance Education

Accreditation, Regulation, and the Standards Movement
ByJulie Porosky Hamlin, Lori Williams

chapter 28|18 pages

Legal and Recent Copyright Issues

ByTomas A. Lipinski, Martin J. Brennan

chapter 29|13 pages

Strategies Used to Evaluate Online Education

ByPatrick R. Lowenthal, Gayle V. Davidson-Shivers

chapter 30|15 pages

Teaching Online

Where? What? Who? When? Why? How?
ByKay Shattuck

part 4|131 pages

Audiences and Providers

chapter 31|11 pages

Online Learning in the Community College Context

ByShanna Smith Jaggars

chapter 32|17 pages

Trends and Directions in Continuing Professional Education

ByScott Gibbons, Matthew Yauk, Kay K. Seo

chapter 33|13 pages

Distance Education in the Armed Forces

ByPeggy L. Kenyon, Timothy Flora

chapter 34|13 pages

Teaching Science at a Distance

ByDietmar Kennepohl

chapter 35|8 pages

Private and For-Profit Institutions

Evolution and Accountability
ByShari L. Jorissen

chapter 36|14 pages

Distance Education and Training in the Corporate Sector

BySaul Carliner

chapter 37|22 pages

The Landscape of K-12 Online Learning

Examining What Is Known
ByMichael K. Barbour

chapter 38|14 pages

Distance Education in Latin America

ByBeatriz Fainholc

chapter 39|17 pages

Distance Education in Asia

Indonesia and Philippines
ByTian Belawati, Melinda dela Peña Bandalaria