Since the advent of the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, a key turning point in terms of the crystallisation of opposition towards the European Union (EU), Euroscepticism has become a transnational phenomenon. The term ‘Euroscepticism’ has become common political language in all EU member states and, with the advent of the Eurozone, refugee and security crises have become increasingly ‘embedded’ within European nation states.

Bringing together a collection of essays by established and up-and-coming authors in the field, this handbook paints a fuller, more holistic picture of the extent to which the Eurosceptic debate has influenced the EU and its member states. Crucially, it also focuses on what the consequences of this development are likely to be for the future direction of the European project. By adopting a broad-based, thematic approach, the volume centres on theory and conceptualisation, political parties, public opinion, non-party groups, the role of referendums – and the media – and of scepticism within the EU institutions. It also reflects on the future of Euroscepticism studies following the United Kingdom’s vote to leave the EU.

Containing a full range of thematic contributions from eminent scholars in the field, The Routledge Handbook of Euroscepticism is a definitive frame of reference for academics, practitioners and those with an interest in the debate about the EU, and more broadly for students of European Studies, EU and European Politics.

part I|60 pages


chapter 1|8 pages

Defining Euroscepticism

From a broad concept to a field of study
ByBenjamin Leruth, Nicholas Startin, Simon Usherwood

chapter 2|11 pages

Contemporary Research on Euroscepticism

The state of the art
ByAleks Szczerbiak, Paul Taggart

chapter 3|14 pages

Theory, Concepts and Research Design in the Study of Euroscepticism

BySofia Vasilopoulou

chapter 4|12 pages

Euroscepticism as Ideology

ByChristopher Flood, Rafal Soborski

chapter 5|13 pages


Stand-alone phenomenon or embedded within a broader cleavage?
ByPieter de Wilde, Céline Teney, Onawa Promise Lacewell

part II|126 pages

Eurosceptic parties and domestic party systems

chapter 6|12 pages

Euroscepticism and Political Parties

Theory and practice
ByLiubomir K. Topaloff

chapter 7|11 pages

‘Euromondialisme’ and the Growth of the Radical Right

ByNicholas Startin

chapter 8|14 pages

Opposing Europe, Opposing Austerity

Radical left parties and the Eurosceptic debate
ByDan Keith

chapter 9|13 pages

The UK Independence Party and Other Primarily Eurosceptic Parties

ByRichard Whitaker

chapter 10|14 pages

The Dynamic of Euroscepticism in Germany

ByAlim Baluch

chapter 11|12 pages

Party-Based Euroscepticism in the Nordic Region

Ever more ‘reluctant Europeans’?
ByBenjamin Leruth

chapter 12|16 pages

Eurosceptic Parties in the Central and Eastern European Countries

A comparative case study of Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria
ByNatasza Styczyńska

chapter 13|13 pages

Changing the Rules, Changing the Winners?

The various effects of European election rules on party oppositions to the EU in France
ByEmmanuelle Reungoat

chapter 14|19 pages

Losing Loyalty

The rise of polity Euroscepticism in Southern Europe
BySusannah Verney

part III|104 pages

Public opinion, referendums and citizens' perceptions of the European Union

chapter 15|15 pages

Soft Sceptics and Hard Rejectionists

Identifying two types of Eurosceptic voters
ByAndré Krouwel, Yordan Kutiyski

chapter 16|11 pages

Young People and the EU at Times of Crisis

BySimona Guerra

chapter 17|16 pages

Eurosceptic Youth

Interest, trust and ideology 1
ByRobert Grimm, Gary Pollock, Mark Ellison

chapter 18|12 pages

The Pragmatic Euroscepticism of Scandinavia

ByJulie Hassing Nielsen

chapter 19|13 pages

Derailing European Integration?

Euroscepticism and the politics of EU referendums
ByKai Oppermann

chapter 20|12 pages

EU Referendums in the ‘New’ Member States

Politicisation after a decade of support?
ByAgnes Batory

chapter 21|12 pages

Referendums and European Integration

The case of the United Kingdom
ByChris Gifford, Ben Wellings

chapter 22|11 pages

When ‘No’ Means ‘Yes’

A comparative study of referendums in Denmark and Ireland
ByJohn FitzGibbon

part IV|78 pages

Non-state actors

chapter 23|13 pages

Euroscepticism as EU Polity Contestation

ByHans-Jörg Trenz

chapter 24|11 pages

Euroscepticism and the Crisis

'Critical Europeanism' and anti-austerity social movements
ByAngela Bourne, Sevasti Chatzopoulou

chapter 25|14 pages

Euroscepticism and Big Business

ByDoris Fuchs, Tobias Gumbert, Bernd Schlipphak

chapter 26|13 pages

Euroscepticism and Trade Unionism

The crisis of ‘Social Europe’
ByAndy Mathers, Susan Milner, Graham Taylor

chapter 27|13 pages

Mirroring or Setting the Political Agenda?

The role of the media in the Eurosceptic debate
ByAsimina Michailidou

chapter 28|12 pages

Varieties of Opposition to the EU in the Low Countries

A comparison of the Dutch and Flemish press
ByPatrick Bijsmans

part V|56 pages

Transnational and pan-European Euroscepticism

chapter 29|13 pages

Euroscepticism in the EU Institutions

A persistent and embedded phenomenon
ByNathalie Brack, Olivier Costa

chapter 30|13 pages

Transnational and Pan-European Euroscepticism

The case of the European Conservatives and Reformists
ByBenjamin Leruth

chapter 31|16 pages

Eurosceptic Members of the European Parliament

Foxes in the henhouse?
ByNathalie Brack

chapter 32|12 pages

The Far Right and the 2014 European Elections

Consequences for the Eurosceptic debate
ByCas Mudde

part VI|53 pages


chapter 33|17 pages

The Impact of the Economic Crisis on Euroscepticism

ByMark Baimbridge

chapter 34|12 pages

Voting to Leave

Economic insecurity and the Brexit vote
ByDaphne Halikiopoulou, Tim Vlandas

chapter 35|12 pages

How the Referendum Was Lost

An analysis of the UK referendum campaign on EU membership
ByNicholas Startin

chapter 36|10 pages


Euroscepticism and European (dis)integration in the age of Brexit
BySimon Usherwood, Benjamin Leruth, Nicholas Startin