This book highlights the latest advances in the science and practice of using ecosystem services to inform decisions for economic development in the context of the developing countries.

The development of the ecosystem services paradigm has enhanced our understanding of natural capital as an indispensable form of capital asset along with produced and human capital. This book addresses what could be the possible pathways to mainstream natural capital assets into development policies and what is currently known about the economic values of ecosystem services. A series of innovative tools to help policy makers and planners account for natural capital and ecosystem services in sectoral and macroeconomic policies have been explored and their application at the national and regional scale has been demonstrated. Several detailed case studies are presented in which the understanding of ecosystem services values has successfully informed decisions, including examples from Chile, South Africa, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Vietnam and the Aral Sea in Central Asia. These provide the critically important insights, lessons learned and means and mechanisms for policy makers to incentivize protection and discourage degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide.

Mainstreaming Natural Capital and Ecosystem Services into Development Policy is designed to help decision makers at all levels, including governments, businesses, multilevel development banks and individuals to integrate ecosystems and their services into their decision making.

chapter 1|15 pages


ByPushpam Kumar

chapter 3|20 pages

Lessons for mainstreaming ecosystem services into policy and practice from South Africa

ByNadia Sitas, Jeanne Nel, Belinda Reyers

chapter 4|44 pages

Linking growth and natural capital in the Republic of Kazakhstan

A case study of Aral Sea
ByTerry Roe, Rodney Smith

chapter 5|17 pages

Mapping the cultural services of ecosystems and heritage sites in the Usumacinta floodplain in Mexico

ByAndrea Ghermandi, Vera Camacho-Valdez

chapter 6|28 pages

Building consensus through assessment evidence from San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

ByBernardo Broitman, Eric Sproles, Craig Weideman, Sonia Salas, Cristian Geldes, Antonia Zambra, Leticia González-Silvestre, Lorena Bugueño

chapter 7|33 pages

Integrating natural capital and ecosystem services into policy and decision making in Trinidad and Tobago

ByJohn Agard, Lena Dempewolf, Maurice Andres Rawlins, Carl Obst, Carlos Muñoz Brenes, Shirley Murillo Ulate, Keisha Garcia

chapter 8|25 pages

Nature’s services facilitate National Green Growth Strategy

Vietnam 2025
ByNguyen Van Tai, Kim Thi Thuy Ngoc, Michael Parsons, Jana Juhrbandt, Tran Thi Thu Ha, Tran Trung Kien, Gregg Michael Verutes, Ngo Chi Hung, Le Thi Le Quyen

chapter 9|25 pages

The contribution of forest ecosystems to the Tanzanian economy

ByBabatunde Abidoye, Eric Mungatana

chapter 10|24 pages

Natural capital and GDP of the poor in Vietnam

ByPavan Sukhdev, Kaavya Varma

chapter 11|29 pages

Natural capital and the rate of discount

ByAnil Markandya