During recent years, the topic of participation has increasingly been gaining importance in Iran – in the scientific field, in practice and rhetoric. However, in current scientific literature – and especially in English literature – there is little knowledge on the conditions, legal background, perceptions, experiences and processes of citizens’ participation in Iran.

This book aims to shed light on the paradoxical question of participation in Iran: it is old and new, dysfunctioning and functioning, disappointing and promising. This slippery status of participation convinces scholars to suggest contradictory interpretations and understandings about the existence, functionality, and potentiality of this concept. The book therefore shows the different perspectives, interpretations, historical developments and case studies of participation in Iran, thus giving the reader a kaleidoscope view on the question of participation in Iran.

part II|139 pages

Participative methods and instruments

chapter 6|14 pages

Urban regeneration policy in Iran

Moving from hierarchy to participation – the case of the facilitation office of development in Farahzad

chapter 8|19 pages

A citizens’ exhibition in Hashtgerd New Town

Young Cities – developing urban energy efficiency: a view from Hashtgerd citizens