During recent years, the topic of participation has increasingly been gaining importance in Iran – in the scientific field, in practice and rhetoric. However, in current scientific literature – and especially in English literature – there is little knowledge on the conditions, legal background, perceptions, experiences and processes of citizens’ participation in Iran.

This book aims to shed light on the paradoxical question of participation in Iran: it is old and new, dysfunctioning and functioning, disappointing and promising. This slippery status of participation convinces scholars to suggest contradictory interpretations and understandings about the existence, functionality, and potentiality of this concept. The book therefore shows the different perspectives, interpretations, historical developments and case studies of participation in Iran, thus giving the reader a kaleidoscope view on the question of participation in Iran.

chapter |7 pages


ByHans-Liudger Dienel, M. Reza Shirazi, Sabine Schröder, Jenny Schmithals

part I|65 pages

Participatory framework

chapter 3|19 pages

Historical obstacles preventing public participation in Iran

A planning practitioner’s point of view
ByJahanshah Pakzad

part II|139 pages

Participative methods and instruments

chapter 5|37 pages

‘Facilitation office’, a paradigmatic shift or a pragmatic tool?

ByM. Reza Shirazi, Somaiyeh Falahat, Majid Rousta, Zahra Eskandari, Roya Rad, Babak Davarpanah, Kaveh Hajaliakbari

chapter 6|14 pages

Urban regeneration policy in Iran

Moving from hierarchy to participation – the case of the facilitation office of development in Farahzad
ByMahfarid Mansoorian

chapter 7|24 pages

‘School Mayors of Iran’ – a project for social participation in urban life

Lessons learned
ByParviz Piran

chapter 8|19 pages

A citizens’ exhibition in Hashtgerd New Town

Young Cities – developing urban energy efficiency: a view from Hashtgerd citizens
BySabine Schröder, Jenny Schmithals

part III|40 pages

Perspectives of different stakeholders

chapter 10|40 pages

Evaluation of participatory plans in Iran – from reality to operation

ByHamid Majedi, Zahra Sadat Saeideh Zarabadi

chapter 11|40 pages

Communities of practice of planning in Iran and integration of residents into planning

ByMaryam Kohansal Nodehi, Kaveh Fouladinasab

chapter 12|40 pages

Promoting public participation and climate change consideration in local government

The case study of Iran
ByGhazaleh Jasbi

part IV|77 pages

Local case studies

chapter 14|2 pages

World Bank participatory urban projects for enabling and regularizing informal settlements in Iran

From ambitions to reality
ByKaveh Fouladinasab, Maryam Kohansal Nodehi

chapter 16|5 pages

Concluding remark

Paradox of citizen participation in Iran
ByM. Reza Shirazi