This volume has been created by scholars from a range of disciplines who wish to show their appreciation for Professor John France and to celebrate his career and achievements. For many decades, Professor France’s work has been instrumental in many of the advances made in the fields of crusader studies and medieval warfare. He has published widely on these topics including major publications such as: Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade (1994) and Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades (1999). This present volume mirrors his interests, offering studies upon both areas. The fifteen essays cover a wide variety of topics, spanning chronologically from the Carolingian period through to the early fourteenth century. Some offer new insights upon long-contested issues, such as the question of whether a new form of cavalry was created by Charles Martel and his successors or the implications of the Mongol defeat at Ayn Jalut. Others use innovative methodologies to unlock the potential of various types of source material including: manuscript illuminations depicting warfare, Templar graffiti, German crusading songs, and crusading charters. Several of the articles open up new areas of debate connected to the history of crusading. Malcolm Barber discusses why Christendom did not react decisively to the fall of Acre in 1291. Bernard Hamilton explores how the rising Frankish presence in the Eastern Mediterranean during the central medieval period reshaped Christendom’s knowledge and understanding of the North African cultures they encountered. In this way, this work seeks both to advance debate in core areas whilst opening new vistas for future research.

chapter 1|12 pages

Carolingian Cavalry in Battle

The Evidence Reconsidered
ByClifford J. Rogers

chapter 2|24 pages

Cultural Representations of Warfare in the High Middle Ages

The Morgan Picture Bible1
ByRichard Abels

chapter 4|22 pages

Encountering the Turks

The First Crusaders' Foreknowledge of their Enemy; Some Preliminary Findings1
ByNicholas Morton

chapter 5|6 pages

An Early Muslim Reaction to the First Crusade?

ByBenjamin Z. Kedar

chapter 6|12 pages

Espionage and Military Intelligence during the First Crusade, 1095–99

BySusan B. Edgington

chapter 7|14 pages

Ralph of Caen as a Military Historian

ByBernard S. Bachrach, David S. Bachrach

chapter 8|18 pages

‘Martyrum collegio sociandus haberet'

Depictions of the Military Orders' Martyrs in the Holy Land, 1187–1291
ByHelen J. Nicholson

chapter 10|14 pages

Godfrey of Bouillon and the Swan Knight

BySimon John

chapter 11|24 pages

The Preparations of Count John I of Sées for the Third Crusade1

ByDaniel Power

chapter 12|14 pages

The Crusades and North-East Africa

ByBernard Hamilton

chapter 13|10 pages

Thoros of Armenia and the Kingdom of Jerusalem

ByPeter W. Edbury

chapter 14|16 pages

Why Did the West Fail to Recover the Holy Land Between 1291 and 1320?

ByMalcolm Barber

chapter 15|14 pages

Meet the Mongols

Dealing with Mamluk Victory and Mongol Defeat in the Middle East in 12601
ByKelly DeVries