When this book first published in 1990, several ‘new’ democracies were emerging in Southern Europe. Italy, Portugal, Spain and Greece were generally seen as conforming to the western European model of liberal democracy. But the process of democratization is a gradual one, and each national democracy is moulded by its own political, social, and economic characteristics. In particular, the active role of national political parties is of prime importance.

The contributors to this volume focus on party systems in the democracies of Greece, Spain and Portugal since the end of their authoritarian regimes, and on Italy in the post-war period. This title will be of interest to students of politics, European Studies, and development studies.

chapter 3|22 pages

The consolidation of democracy in post-war Italy

ByHine David

chapter 5|22 pages

Portugal: an open verdict

ByKen Gladdish

chapter 6|21 pages

Regime consolidation in Spain: party, state, and society

ByRichard Gillespie

chapter 8|24 pages

Political parties and democratic consolidation in Greece

ByKevin Featherstone