The Routledge Handbook of English Language Teaching is the definitive reference volume for postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students of Applied Linguistics, ELT/TESOL, and Language Teacher Education, and for ELT professionals engaged in in-service teacher development and/or undertaking academic study.

Progressing from ‘broader’ contextual issues to a ‘narrower’ focus on classrooms and classroom discourse, the volume’s inter-related themes focus on:

  • ELT in the world: contexts and goals
  • planning and organising ELT: curriculum, resources and settings
  • methods and methodology: perspectives and practices
  • second language learning and learners
  • teaching language: knowledge, skills and pedagogy
  • understanding the language classroom.

The Handbook’s 39 chapters are written by leading figures in ELT from around the world. Mindful of the diverse pedagogical, institutional and social contexts for ELT, they convincingly present the key issues, areas of debate and dispute, and likely future developments in ELT from an applied linguistics perspective.

Throughout the volume, readers are encouraged to develop their own thinking and practice in contextually appropriate ways, assisted by discussion questions and suggestions for further reading that accompany every chapter.

Advisory board: Guy Cook, Diane Larsen-Freeman, Amy Tsui, and Steve Walsh

chapter |10 pages


English language teaching in the contemporary world
ByGraham Hall

part I|66 pages

ELT in the world

chapter 1|13 pages

World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca

A changing context for ELT
ByPhilip Seargeant

chapter 2|12 pages

Politics, power relationships and ELT

ByAlastair Pennycook

chapter 3|13 pages

Language and culture in ELT

ByClaire Kramsch, Zhu Hua

chapter 4|13 pages

‘Native speakers’, English and ELT

Changing perspectives
ByEnric Llurda

chapter 5|13 pages

Educational perspectives on ELT

Society and the individual; traditional, progressive and transformative
ByGraham Crookes

part II|129 pages

Planning and organising ELT

chapter 6|16 pages

Language curriculum design

Possibilities and realities
ByKathleen Graves

chapter 7|14 pages

ELT materials

Claims, critiques and controversies
ByJohn Gray

chapter 8|12 pages

Dealing with the demands of language testing and assessment

ByGlenn Fulcher, Nathaniel Owen

chapter 9|14 pages

Language teacher education

ByKaren E. Johnson

chapter 10|15 pages

New technologies, blended learning and the ‘flipped classroom’ in ELT

ByPaul Gruba, Don Hinkelman, Mónica Stella Cárdenas-Claros

chapter 11|14 pages

English for specific purposes

BySue Starfield

chapter 12|13 pages

English for academic purposes

ByHelen Basturkmen, Rosemary Wette

chapter 13|14 pages

English for speakers of other languages

Language education and migration
ByJames Simpson

chapter 14|15 pages

Bilingual education in a multilingual world

ByKevin S. Carroll, Mary Carol Combs

part III|71 pages

Methods and methodology

chapter 15|15 pages

Method, methods and methodology

Historical trends and current debates
ByGraham Hall

chapter 16|14 pages

Communicative language teaching in theory and practice

ByScott Thornbury

chapter 17|14 pages

Task-based language teaching

ByKris Van den Branden

chapter 18|13 pages

Content and language integrated learning

ByTom Morton

chapter 19|13 pages

Appropriate methodology

Towards a cosmopolitan approach
ByAdrian Holliday

part IV|101 pages

Second language learning and learners

chapter 20|14 pages

Cognitive perspectives on classroom language learning

ByLaura Collins, Emma Marsden

chapter 21|15 pages

Sociocultural theory and the language classroom

ByEduardo Negueruela-Azarola, Próspero N. García

chapter 22|14 pages

Individual differences

ByPeter D. MacIntyre, Tammy Gregersen, Richard Clément

chapter 23|15 pages


ByMartin Lamb

chapter 24|14 pages

Learner autonomy

ByPhil Benson

chapter 25|14 pages

Primary ELT

Issues and trends
ByJanet Enever

chapter 26|13 pages

Secondary ELT

Issues and trends
ByAnnamaria Pinter

part V|89 pages

Teaching language

chapter 27|16 pages

Corpora in ELT

ByAna Frankenberg-Garcia

chapter 28|14 pages

Language Awareness

ByAgneta M-L. Svalberg

chapter 29|15 pages

Teaching language as a system

ByDilin Liu, Robert Nelson

chapter 30|13 pages

Teaching language skills

ByJonathan Newton

chapter 31|15 pages

Teaching literacy

ByAmos Paran, Catherine Wallace

chapter 32|14 pages

Using literature in ELT

ByGeoff Hall

part VI|99 pages

Focus on the language classroom

chapter 33|13 pages

Complexity and language teaching

BySarah Mercer

chapter 34|13 pages

Classroom talk, interaction and collaboration

BySteve Walsh, Li Li

chapter 35|14 pages

Errors, corrective feedback and repair

Variations and learning outcomes
ByAlison Mackey, Hae In Park, Kaitlyn M. Tagarelli

chapter 36|14 pages

Questioning ‘English-only’ classrooms

Own-language use in ELT
ByPhilip Kerr

chapter 37|15 pages

Teaching large classes in difficult circumstances

ByFauzia Shamim, Kuchah Kuchah

chapter 38|14 pages

Computer-mediated communication and language learning

ByRichard Kern, Paige Ware, Mark Warschauer

chapter 39|14 pages

Values in the ELT classroom

ByJulia Menard-Warwick, Miki Mori, Anna Reznik, Daniel Moglen