While applied epistemology has been neglected for much of the twentieth century, it has seen emerging interest in recent years, with key thinkers in the field helping to put it on the philosophical map. Although it is an old tradition, current technological and social developments have dramatically changed both the questions it faces and the methodology required to answer those questions. Recent developments also make it a particularly important and exciting area for research and teaching in the twenty-first century. The Routledge Handbook of Applied Epistemology is an outstanding reference source to this exciting subject and the first collection of its kind. Comprising entries by a team of international contributors, the Handbook is divided into six main parts:

  • The Internet
  • Politics
  • Science
  • Epistemic institutions
  • Individual investigators
  • Theory and practice in philosophy.


Within these sections, the core topics and debates are presented, analyzed, and set into broader historical and disciplinary contexts. The central topics covered include: the prehistory of applied epistemology, expertise and scientific authority, epistemic aspects of political and social philosophy, epistemology and the law, and epistemology and medicine.

Essential reading for students and researchers in epistemology, political philosophy, and applied ethics the Handbook will also be very useful for those in related fields, such as law, sociology, and politics.

part I|12 pages


chapter 1|10 pages

The return of applied epistemology

ByJames Chase, David Coady

part II|56 pages

The Internet

chapter 2|13 pages

The World Wide Web

ByPaul Smart, Nigel Shadbolt

chapter 3|13 pages


ByKaren Frost-Arnold

chapter 4|13 pages


ByHanna Kiri Gunn, Michael P. Lynch

chapter 5|15 pages

Adversarial epistemology on the Internet

ByDon Fallis

part III|60 pages


chapter 6|17 pages

John Stuart Mill on free speech

ByDaniel Halliday, Helen McCabe

chapter 7|13 pages

Epistemic democracy

ByJason Brennan

chapter 8|14 pages

Epistemic injustice and feminist epistemology

ByAndrea Pitts

chapter 9|14 pages

Propaganda and Ideology

ByRandal Marlin

part IV|48 pages


chapter 10|11 pages

Expertise in climate science

ByStephen John

chapter 11|12 pages

Evidence-based medicine

ByRobyn Bluhm, Kirstin Borgerson

chapter 12|12 pages

The precautionary principle in medical research and policy

The case of sponsorship bias
ByDaniel Steel

chapter 13|11 pages

Psychology and conspiracy theories 1

ByDavid Coady

part V|54 pages

Epistemic institutions

chapter 14|17 pages

Legal burdens of proof and statistical evidence

ByGeorgi Gardiner

chapter 15|15 pages

Banking and finance

Disentangling the epistemic failings of the 2008 financial crisis
ByLisa Warenski

chapter 16|20 pages

Applied epistemology of education

ByBen Kotzee

part VI|64 pages

Individual investigators

chapter 17|14 pages


ByTim Kenyon

chapter 18|12 pages


BySteve Fuller

chapter 19|13 pages


ByAxel Gelfert

chapter 20|12 pages


ByTommaso Bertolotti, Lorenzo Magnani

chapter 21|11 pages

The applied epistemology of conspiracy theories

An overview
ByM. R. X. Dentith, Brian L. Keeley

part VII|37 pages

Theory and practice in philosophy

chapter 22|10 pages

Philosophical expertise

ByBryan Frances

chapter 23|11 pages

Ethical expertise

ByChristopher Cowley

chapter 24|14 pages

The demise of grand narratives?

Postmodernism, power-knowledge, and applied epistemology
ByMatthew Sharpe