Social media are now widely used for political protests, campaigns, and communication in developed and developing nations, but available research has not yet paid sufficient attention to experiences beyond the US and UK. This collection tackles this imbalance head-on, compiling cutting-edge research across six continents to provide a comprehensive, global, up-to-date review of recent political uses of social media.

Drawing together empirical analyses of the use of social media by political movements and in national and regional elections and referenda, The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics presents studies ranging from Anonymous and the Arab Spring to the Greek Aganaktismenoi, and from South Korean presidential elections to the Scottish independence referendum. The book is framed by a selection of keystone theoretical contributions, evaluating and updating existing frameworks for the social media age.

chapter |4 pages


ByAxel Bruns, Gunn Enli, Eli Skogerbø, Anders Olof Larsson, Christian Christensen

part I|146 pages

Theories of Social Media and Politics

chapter 1|16 pages

Politics in the Age of Hybrid Media

Power, Systems, and Media Logics
ByAndrew Chadwick, James Dennis, Amy P. Smith

chapter 2|16 pages

Network Media LOGIC

Some Conceptual Considerations
ByUlrike Klinger, Jakob Svensson

chapter 3|17 pages

Where There Is Social Media There Is Politics

ByKarine Nahon

chapter 4|18 pages

Is Habermas on Twitter?

Social Media and the Public Sphere
ByAxel Bruns, Tim Highfield

chapter 5|15 pages

Third Space, Social Media, and Everyday Political Talk

ByScott Wright, Todd Graham, Dan Jackson

chapter 6|15 pages

Tipping the Balance of Power

Social Media and the Transformation of Political Journalism
ByMarcel Broersma, Todd Graham

chapter 7|17 pages

Agenda-Setting Revisited

Social Media and Sourcing in Mainstream Journalism
ByEli Skogerbø, Axel Bruns, Andrew Quodling, Thomas Ingebretsen

chapter 8|16 pages

"Trust Me, I Am Authentic!"

Authenticity Illusions in Social Media Politics
ByGunn Enli

chapter 9|14 pages

How to Speak the Truth on Social Media

An Inquiry into Post-Dialectical Information Environments
ByMercedes Bunz

part II|158 pages

Political Movements

chapter 10|12 pages

All Politics Is Local

Anonymous and the Steubenville/ Maryville Rape Cases
ByChristian Christensen

chapter 11|19 pages

Social Media Accounts of the Spanish Indignados

ByCamilo Cristancho, Eva Anduiza

chapter 12|14 pages

Every Crisis Is a Digital Opportunity

The Aganaktismenoi Movement's Use of Social Media and the Emergence of Networked Solidarity in Greece
ByYannis Theocharis

chapter 13|13 pages

Social Media Use During Political Crises

The Case of the Gezi Protests in Turkey
ByLemi Baruh, Hayley Watson

chapter 14|12 pages

Structures of Feeling, Storytelling, and Social Media

The Case of #Egypt
ByZizi Papacharissi, Stacy Blasiola

chapter 15|12 pages

The Importance of 'Social' in Social Media

Lessons from Iran
ByGholam Khiabany

chapter 16|13 pages

Digital Knives are Still Knives

The Affordances of Social Media for a Repressed Opposition against an Entrenched Authoritarian Regime in Azerbaijan
ByKaty E. Pearce, Farid Guliyev

chapter 17|11 pages

Social Media and Social Movements

Weak Publics, the Online Space, Spatial Relations, and Collective Action in Singapore
ByNatalie Pang, Debbie Goh

chapter 18|9 pages

Social Media and Civil Society Actions in India

ByRajesh Kumar

chapter 19|13 pages

Cyberactivism in China

Empowerment, Control, and Beyond
ByRongbin Han

chapter 20|15 pages

Voicing Discontent in South Korea

Origins and Channels of Online Civic Movements
ByMaurice Vergeer, Se Jung Park

chapter 21|13 pages

Nationalist and Anti-Fascist Movements in Social Media

ByChristian Nuernbergk

part III|222 pages

Political Campaigns

chapter 22|14 pages

From Emerging to Established?

A Comparison of Twitter Use during Swedish Election Campaigns in 2010 and 2014
ByAnders Olof Larsson, Hallvard Moe

chapter 23|13 pages

Social Media in the UK Election Campaigns 2008-2014

Experimentation, Innovation, and Convergence
ByDarren G. Lilleker, Nigel Jackson, Karolina Koc-Michalska

chapter 24|13 pages

Compulsory Voting, Encouraged Tweeting?

Australian Elections and Social Media
ByTim Highfield, Axel Bruns

chapter 25|13 pages

Not Just a Face(Book) in the Crowd

Candidates' Use of Facebook during the Danish 2011 Parliamentary Election Campaign
ByMorten Skovsgaard, Arjen van Dalen

chapter 26|14 pages

Social Media Incumbent Advantage

Barack Obama's and Mitt Romney's Tweets in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election Campaign
ByGunn Enli, Anja Aaheim Naper

chapter 27|13 pages

The 2012 French Presidental Campaign

First Steps into the Political Twittersphere
ByFrançoise Papa, Jean-Marc Francony

chapter 28|15 pages

The Emergence of Social Media Politics in South Korea

The Case of the 2012 Presidential Election
ByLars Willnat, Young Min

chapter 30|15 pages

Social Media Use in the German Election Campaign 2013

ByChristian Nuernbergk, Jennifer Wladarsch, Julia Neubarth, Christoph Neuberger

chapter 31|13 pages

Comparing Facebook and Twitter During the 2013 General Election in Italy

ByLuca Rossi, Mario Orefice

chapter 32|13 pages

Social Media and Election Campaigns in Sub-Saharan Africa

Insights from Cameroon
ByTeke Ngomba

chapter 33|11 pages

Social Media and Elections in Kenya

ByMartin Nkosi Ndlela

chapter 34|17 pages

Electoral Politics on Social Media

The Israeli Case
BySharon Haleva-Amir, Karine Nahon

chapter 35|15 pages

Social Media and the Scottish Independence Referendum 2014

Events and the Generation of Enthusiasm for Yes 1
ByMark Shephard, Stephen Quinlan

chapter 36|15 pages

The Use of Twitter in the Danish EP Elections 2014

ByJakob Linaa Jensen, Jacob Ørmen, Stine Lomborg

chapter 37|13 pages

Twitter in Political Campaigns

The Brazilian 2014 Presidential Election
ByRaquel Recuero, Gabriela Zago, Marco T. Bastos