ABSTRACT

The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine is a comprehensive guide to topics in the fields of epistemology and metaphysics of medicine. It examines traditional topics such as the concept of disease, causality in medicine, the epistemology of the randomized controlled trial, the biopsychosocial model, explanation, clinical judgment and phenomenology of medicine and emerging topics, such as philosophy of epidemiology, measuring harms, the concept of disability, nursing perspectives, race and gender, the metaphysics of Chinese medicine, and narrative medicine. Each of the 48 chapters is written especially for this volume and with a student audience in mind. For pedagogy and clarity, each chapter contains an extended example illustrating the ideas discussed. This text is intended for use as a reference for students in courses in philosophy of medicine and philosophy of science, and pairs well with The Routledge Companion to Bioethics for use in medical humanities and social science courses.

chapter |2 pages

Introduction

ByMIRIAM SOLOMON, JEREMY R. SIMON, HAROLD KINCAID

part |2 pages

PART I General Concepts

chapter 1|11 pages

The Concept of Disease

ByDOMINIC SISTI, ARTHUR L. CAPLAN

chapter 2|11 pages

Disease, Illness, and Sickness

ByBJØRN HOFMANN

chapter 3|9 pages

Health and Well- Being

ByDANIEL M. HAUSMAN

chapter 4|12 pages

Disability and Normality

ByANITA SILVERS

chapter 5|10 pages

Mechanisms in Medicine

ByPHYLLIS ILLARI

chapter 6|13 pages

Causality and Causal Inference in Medicine

ByJULIAN REISS

chapter 8|9 pages

Reductionism in the Biomedical Sciences

ByHOLLY K. ANDERSEN

chapter 9|11 pages

Realism and Constructivism in Medicine

ByJEREMY R. SIMON

part |2 pages

PART II Specific Concepts

chapter 10|12 pages

Birth

ByCHRISTINA SCHÜES

chapter 11|9 pages

Death

BySTEVEN LUPER

chapter 12|10 pages

Pain, Chronic Pain, and Suffering

ByVALERIE GRAY HARDCASTLE

chapter 13|10 pages

Measuring Placebo Effects

ByJEREMY HOWICK

chapter 14|12 pages

The Concept of Genetic Disease

ByJONATHAN MICHAEL KAPLAN

chapter 15|14 pages

Diagnostic Categories

ByANNEMARIE JUTEL

chapter 16|10 pages

Classificatory Challenges in Psychopathology

ByHAROLD KINCAID

chapter 17|13 pages

Classificatory Challenges in Physical Disease

ByMATHIAS BROCHHAUSEN

part |2 pages

PART III (a) Evidence in Medicine

chapter 18|14 pages

The Randomized Controlled Trial: Internal and External Validity

ByADAM LA CAZE

chapter 20|10 pages

Statistical Evidence and the Reliability of Medical Research

ByMATTIA ANDREOLETTI, DAVID TEIRA

chapter 21|9 pages

Bayesian Versus Frequentist Clinical Trials

ByCECILIA NARDINI

chapter 22|11 pages

Observational Research

ByOLAF M. DEKKERS, JAN P. VANDENBROUCKE

chapter 23|9 pages

Philosophy of Epidemiology

ByALEX BROADBENT

chapter 24|12 pages

Complementary/Alternative Medicine and the Evidence Requirement

ByKIRSTEN HANSEN, KLEMENS KAPPEL

part |2 pages

PART III (b) Other Research Methods

chapter 25|14 pages

Models in Medicine

ByMICHAEL WILDE, JON WILLIAMSON

chapter 26|11 pages

Discovery in Medicine

ByBRENDAN CLARKE

chapter 27|14 pages

Explanation in Medicine

ByMAËL LEMOINE

chapter 28|9 pages

The Case Study in Medicine

ByRACHEL A. ANKENY

chapter 29|11 pages

Values in Medical Research

ByKIRSTIN BORGERSON

chapter 30|12 pages

Outcome Measures in Medicine

ByLEAH MCCLIMANS

chapter 31|11 pages

Measuring Harms

ByJACOB STEGENGA

chapter 32|8 pages

Expert Consensus

ByMIRIAM SOLOMON

part |2 pages

PART IV Clinical Methods

chapter 33|9 pages

Clinical Judgment

ByROSS UPSHUR AND BENJAMIN CHIN- YEE

chapter 34|11 pages

Narrative Medicine

ByDANIELLE SPENCER

chapter 35|12 pages

Medical Decision Making: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis

ByASHLEY GRAHAM KENNEDY

part |2 pages

PART V Variability and Diversity

chapter 36|11 pages

Personalized and Precision Medicine

ByALEX GAMMA

chapter 37|11 pages

Gender in Medicine

ByINMACULADA DE MELO- MARTÍN AND KRISTEN INTEMANN

chapter 38|13 pages

Race in Medicine

BySEAN A. VALLES

chapter 39|11 pages

Atypical Bodies in Medical Care

ByELLEN K. FEDER

part |2 pages

PART VI Perspectives

chapter 40|10 pages

The Biomedical Model and the Biopsychosocial Model in Medicine

ByFRED GIFFORD

chapter 41|10 pages

Models of Mental Illness

ByJACQUELINE SULLIVAN

chapter 42|10 pages

Phenomenology and Hermeneutics in Medicine

ByHAVI CAREL

chapter 43|12 pages

Evolutionary Medicine MICHAEL COURNOYEA

chapter 44|10 pages

Philosophy of Nursing: Caring, Holism, and the Nursing Role(s)

ByMARK RISJORD

chapter 45|11 pages

Contemporary Chinese Medicine and Its Theoretical Foundations

ByJUDITH FARQUHAR

chapter 46|11 pages

Double Truths and the Postcolonial Predicament of Chinese Medicine

ByERIC I. KARCHMER

chapter 47|10 pages

Medicine as a Commodity

ByCARL ELLIOTT