The late 1970s and 1980s saw a process of mass factory closures in cities and regions across the Midwest of the United States. What happened next as leaders reacted to the news of each plant closure and to the broader deindustrialization trend that emerged during this time period is the main subject of this book.

It shows how leaders in eight metropolitan areas facing deindustrialization strived for adaptive resilience by using economic development policy. The unique attributes of each region - asset bases, modes of governance, civic capacity, leadership qualities, and external factors - influenced the responses employed and the outcomes achieved. Using adaptive resilience as a lens, Margaret Cowell provides a thorough understanding of how and why regions varied in their abilities to respond to deindustrialization.

chapter |10 pages


chapter 1|11 pages

Deindustrialization and its discontents

chapter 2|14 pages

A glimmer of resilience

chapter 3|15 pages

Enter the economic developers

chapter 4|13 pages

Eight regions changing

chapter 5|22 pages

The ‘Basic Betters’: Detroit, Milwaukee,

ByCleveland, and Buffalo

chapter 6|18 pages

‘Bowing Out’: Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, Indianapolis, and


chapter 7|14 pages

Conclusion: the art of adaptive resilience