The self-immolation of Mohammed Bouazizi in Tunisia in December 2010 heralded the arrival of the ‘Arab Spring,’ a startling, yet not unprecedented, era of profound social and political upheaval.

The meme of the Arab Spring is characterised by bottom-up change, or the lack thereof, and its effects are still unfurling today. The Routledge Handbook of the Arab Spring seeks to provide a departure point for ongoing discussion of a fluid phenomenon on a plethora of topics, including:

  • Contexts and contests of democratisation
  • The sweep of the Arab Spring
  • Egypt
  • Women and the Arab Spring
  • Agents of change and the technology of protest
  • Impact of the Arab Spring in the wider Middle East and further afield

Collating a wide array of viewpoints, specialisms, biases, and degrees of proximity and distance from events that shook the Arab world to its core, the Handbook is written with the reader in mind, to provide students, practitioners, diplomats, policy-makers and lay readers with contextualization and knowledge, and to set the stage for further discussion of the Arab Spring.

chapter 1|14 pages

Unruliness through Space and Time

Reconstructing 'Peoplehood' in the Arab Spring
ByLarbi Sadiki

part I|48 pages

Introducing the Arab Spring

chapter 3|11 pages

Arab Politics after the Uprisings

Still Searching for Legitimacy
ByMichael C. Hudson

chapter 4|12 pages

Towards a Historical Sociology of the Arab Uprising

Beyond Democratization and Post-Democratization
ByRaymond Hinnebusch

chapter 5|12 pages

The Arab Spring

Why in Some Arab Countries and Not in Others?
ByMustapha Kamel Al-Sayyid

part II|134 pages

The 'Travel' of Revolution

chapter 6|12 pages

Interpreting the Tunisian Revolution

Beyond Bou'azizi
ByAmor Boubakri

chapter 7|12 pages

The Roots of the Tunisian Revolution

Elements of a Political Sociology
BySami Zemni

chapter 9|13 pages

Libya's Arab Spring

ByAnas Abubakr Buera

chapter 10|15 pages

Libya's Islamists and the 17 February Revolution

A Battle for a Revolutionary Theology
ByAnas El Gomati

chapter 11|12 pages

The Uprising in Bahrain

Regional Dimensions and International Consequences
ByKristian Coates Ulrichsen

chapter 12|15 pages

The Arab Spring Comes to Syria

Internal Mobilization for Democratic Change, Militarization and Internationalization
ByObaida Fares

chapter 13|13 pages

Yemen's Arab Spring

Outsmarting the Cunning State?
ByElham Manea

chapter 14|14 pages

A Process of Perpetual 'Uncovering'

The Syrian Thawrah in Its Fourth Year
ByLayla Saleh

chapter 15|10 pages

Pro-Regime versus Oppositional Media

During the Revolution, 2011–2013
ByObaida Fares

part III|74 pages

Egypt in the Arab Spring

chapter 16|16 pages

The Egyptian Revolution

Causes and Dynamics
ByShafeeq Ghabra

chapter 17|12 pages

Making the Crisis Visible

ByIrene Weipert-Fenner

chapter 18|13 pages

The 'Anguish' of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt

ByKhalil al-Anani

chapter 19|13 pages

Contemporary Islamist Discourses on the State in Egypt

Before and After the Arab Spring
ByMohammed Moussa

chapter 20|18 pages

Failure of a Revolution

The Military, Secular Intelligentsia and Religion in Egypt's Pseudo-Secular State
ByAbou El Fadl Khaled

part IV|30 pages

Women's Voices in the Arab Spring

chapter 21|12 pages

Syria's 'Arab Spring'

Women and the Struggle to Live in Truth
ByTamara Al-Om

chapter 22|16 pages

Tunisia's Women

Partners in Revolution
ByAndrea Khalil

part V|40 pages

Arab Spring

chapter 24|12 pages

The Tunisian Revolution

Narratives of the Tunisian General Labour Union
ByHèla Yousfi

chapter 25|10 pages

Revolutionary Contagion

Social Movements around the Mediterranean
ByGianluca Solera

part VI|92 pages


chapter 26|11 pages

A Public Sphere Revolution?

Social Media versus Authoritarian Regimes
ByArmando Salvatore

chapter 27|12 pages

The Revolution Never Ends

Music, Protest and Rebirth in the Arab World
ByMark LeVine

chapter 28|10 pages

Al Jazeera and Televised Revolution

The Case of Tunisia
ByEzzeddine Abdelmoula

chapter 29|16 pages

Graffiti Arts and the Arab Spring

ByCharlotte Schriwer

chapter 30|16 pages

Poetry and the Arab Spring

ByAtef Alshaer

chapter 32|13 pages

Youth and Technology in a Bottom-Up Struggle for Empowerment

ByMaría Blanco Palencia

part VII|114 pages

The Arab Spring

chapter 33|16 pages

Evolution not Revolution?

Morocco and the Arab Spring
ByMichael J. Willis

chapter 34|12 pages


The Limits of Revolution and Democratization
ByYoucef Bouandel

chapter 35|17 pages

The Arab Spring and Democratization

An Iraqi Perspective
ByHamid J. A. Alkifaey

chapter 36|11 pages

Protest and Reform

The Arab Spring in Oman
ByJames Worrall

chapter 37|12 pages

Palestine and the Wind of Arab Revolution

ByTahani Mustafa

chapter 38|12 pages

Turkey and the Arab Uprisings

ByDerya Göçer Akder, Marc Herzog

chapter 39|12 pages


A Model for Continuity or Change?
ByCengiz Günay

chapter 40|11 pages

Iran's Own Popular Uprising and the Arab Spring

ByShabnam J. Holliday

chapter 41|9 pages

The Israel Tent Protests

ByAlan Craig

part b VIII|103 pages

The Arab Spring in a Global Context

chapter 42|10 pages

Revolutions in North Africa

A View from the South of the Continent
ByShamil Jeppie

chapter 43|15 pages

The European Union and Democracy Promotion

Readjusting to the Arab Spring
ByTobias Schumacher

chapter 44|13 pages

The Nordic Countries and the Arab Spring

From 'Nordic Internationalism' to 'Nordic Interventionism'?
ByTimo Behr

chapter 45|12 pages

From Spain to Egypt

Lessons from An 'Unfinished' Transition
ByIvan Molina Allende, Sabine Hattinger

chapter 46|11 pages

European Union Democracy Promotion in Tunisia

ByRaoudha Ben Othman

chapter 47|13 pages

The Arab Spring through Russian 'Eyes'

ByKarina Fayzullina

chapter 49|14 pages

The Arab Spring

ByAnwar Alam