Relativism can be found in all philosophical traditions and subfields of philosophy. It is also a central idea in the social sciences, the humanities, religion and politics. This is the first volume to map relativistic motifs in all areas of philosophy, synchronically and diachronically. It thereby provides essential intellectual tools for thinking about contemporary issues like cultural diversity, the plurality of the sciences, or the scope of moral values.

The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Relativism is an outstanding major reference source on this fundamental topic. The 57 chapters by a team of international contributors are divided into nine parts:

  • Relativism in non-Western philosophical traditions
  • Relativism in Western philosophical traditions
  • Relativism in ethics
  • Relativism in political and legal philosophy
  • Relativism in epistemology
  • Relativism in metaphysics
  • Relativism in philosophy of science
  • Relativism in philosophy of language and mind
  • Relativism in other areas of philosophy.

Essential reading for students and researchers in all branches of philosophy, this handbook will also be of interest to those in related subjects such as politics, religion, sociology, cultural studies and literature.

chapter |7 pages


A primer on relativism
Edited ByMartin Kusch

part 1|29 pages

Relativism in non-Western philosophical traditions

chapter 1|9 pages

Relativism in the Indian tradition

Examining the viewpoints (dṛṣṭis)
BySthaneshwar Timalsina

chapter 2|9 pages

Relativism in the Islamic traditions

ByNader El-Bizri

chapter 3|9 pages

African philosophy

ByAnke Graness

part 2|105 pages

Relativism in Western philosophical traditions

chapter 4|9 pages

Relativism in ancient Greek philosophy

ByTamer Nawar

chapter 5|9 pages

Medieval philosophy

ByJohn Marenbon

chapter 6|10 pages

Relativism in early modern philosophy

ByMartin Lenz

chapter 7|10 pages

Relativism in German idealism, historicism and neo-Kantianism

ByKatherina Kinzel

chapter 8|9 pages

Nietzsche and relativism

ByJessica N. Berry

chapter 9|9 pages

Marx and Marxism

ByLawrence Dallman, Brian Leiter

chapter 10|10 pages

The many faces of anti-relativism in phenomenology

BySonja Rinofner-Kreidl

chapter 11|7 pages

History, dialogue, and feeling

Perspectives on hermeneutic relativism
ByKristin Gjesdal

chapter 12|10 pages

Relativism in the context of National Socialism

ByJohannes Steizinger

chapter 13|9 pages

Relativism and pragmatism

ByAnna Boncompagni

chapter 14|11 pages

Relativism and poststructuralism

ByGerald Posselt, Sergej Seitz

part 3|64 pages

Relativism in ethics

chapter 15|8 pages

Moral ambivalence

ByDavid B. Wong

chapter 16|10 pages

Moral relativism and moral disagreement

ByAlexandra Plakias

chapter 17|9 pages

Moral relativism

ByPeter Seipel

chapter 18|8 pages

Relativism and moralism

ByJohn Christian Laursen, Victor Morales

chapter 20|10 pages

Evolutionary debunking and moral relativism

ByDaniel Z. Korman, Dustin Locke

chapter 21|9 pages

Motivating reasons

ByChristoph Hanisch

part 4|71 pages

Relativism in political and legal philosophy

chapter 22|8 pages

Relativism and liberalism

ByMatthew J. Moore

chapter 23|9 pages

Relativism and radical conservatism

ByTimo Pankakoski, Jussi Backman

chapter 24|9 pages


ByHenry Tam

chapter 25|10 pages


ByGeorge Crowder, Geoffrey Brahm Levey

chapter 26|9 pages

Critical theory and the challenge of relativism

ByEspen Hammer

chapter 27|9 pages

Relativism in feminist political theory

ByCharlotte Knowles

chapter 28|7 pages

Relativism and race

ByE. Díaz-León

chapter 29|8 pages

Relativism in the philosophy of law

ByTorben Spaak

part 5|58 pages

Relativism in epistemology

chapter 30|9 pages


BySteven D. Hales

chapter 31|9 pages

Epistemic relativism and epistemic internalism

ByDuncan Pritchard

chapter 32|9 pages

Relativism and externalism

ByJ. Adam Carter, Robin McKenna

chapter 33|10 pages

Epistemic relativism and pragmatic encroachment

ByBrian Kim

chapter 34|9 pages

Relativism and hinge epistemology

ByAnnalisa Coliva

chapter 35|10 pages

Relativising epistemic advantage

ByNatalie Ashton

part 6|37 pages

Relativism in metaphysics

chapter 36|8 pages

Ontological relativity

ByDavid J. Stump

chapter 37|9 pages

Quantifier variance

ByEli Hirsch, Jared Warren

chapter 38|9 pages

Metaphysical anti-realism

ByVera Flocke

chapter 39|9 pages

Ontological relativism and the status of ontological disputes

ByDelia Belleri

part 7|78 pages

Relativism in philosophy of science

chapter 40|9 pages

The relativistic legacy of Kuhn and Feyerabend

ByHoward Sankey

chapter 41|10 pages

Relativism and antinomianism

ByDavid Bloor

chapter 42|9 pages

Relativism, perspectivism and pluralism

ByHasok Chang

chapter 43|9 pages

Relativism and scientific realism

ByStathis Psillos, Jamie Shaw

chapter 44|9 pages

Relativism in the social sciences

ByStephen Turner

chapter 45|10 pages

Relativism in the philosophy of anthropology

ByInkeri Koskinen

chapter 46|10 pages

Relativism in logic and mathematics

ByFlorian Steinberger

chapter 47|10 pages

Logic and the psychology of reasoning 1

ByCatarina Dutilh Novaes

part 8|85 pages

Relativism in philosophy of language and mind

chapter 48|11 pages

Conceptual schemes

ByDrew Khlentzos

chapter 49|9 pages

Semantics and metaphysics of truth

ByManuel García-Carpintero

chapter 50|9 pages

Assessment relativism

ByFilippo Ferrari

chapter 51|10 pages

Faultless disagreement

ByDan Zeman

chapter 52|11 pages

Relativism and perspectival content

ByMax Kölbel

chapter 53|11 pages

The case against semantic relativism

ByTeresa Marques

chapter 54|10 pages

De se relativism

ByAndy Egan, Dirk Kindermann

chapter 55|12 pages

Relativism and expressivism

ByBob Beddor

part 9|24 pages

Relativism in other areas of philosophy

chapter 56|9 pages

Relativism in the philosophy of religion

ByPaul O’Grady

chapter 57|13 pages

Relativism and experimental philosophy

ByStephen Stich, David Rose, Edouard Machery