Over the past decade, several initiatives have been launched to address the major health problems affecting the world's poorest countries, including global efforts to combat HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. More recently, a millennial challenge has been laid down to root out and confront the links between poverty and health. Using demographic surveillance systems, the INDEPTH researchers aim to contribute both to the empirical knowledge about health equity in developing countries and to report on the application of and innovation in tools and methods. Illustrated with case studies from Africa and Asia, this book puts forward a comprehensive view of the INDEPTH methodologies and findings. It develops and measures concepts and constructs of 'poverty' and 'equity' and relates these to health status. While tools and concepts for measuring health status are more developed, this volume contributes by grappling with new concepts and tools to measure changes in deprivation and disadvantage, adding to this intense theoretical and methodological debate.