Traditionally, the public sector has been responsible for the provision of all public goods necessary to support sustainable urban development, including public infrastructure such as roads, parks, social facilities, climate mitigation and adaptation, and affordable housing. With the shift in recent years towards public infrastructure being financed by private stakeholders, the demand for transparent guidance to ensure accountability for the responsibilities held by developers has risen. 

Within planning practice and urban development, the shift towards private financing of public infrastructure has translated into new tools being implemented to provide joint responsibility for upholding requirements. Developer obligations are contributions made by property developers and landowners towards public infrastructure in exchange for decisions on land-use regulations which increase the economic value of their land. This book presents insight into the design and practical results of these obligations in different countries and their effects on municipal financial health, demonstrating the increasing importance of efficient bargaining processes and the institutional design of developer obligations in modern urban planning.

Primarily written for academics in land-use planning, real estate, urban development, law, and economics, it will additionally be useful to policy makers and practitioners pursuing the improvement of public infrastructure financing.

chapter 1|13 pages

Development obligations in Canada

The experience in four provinces

chapter 2|10 pages

Developer obligations in the US

chapter 3|9 pages

Developers’ obligations as a land value capture tool

Practice and lessons from Colombia

chapter 6|10 pages


Ban on conditioning the land-use plan to developer obligations diminishes their effectiveness

chapter 7|9 pages

The Netherlands

Developer obligations towards cost recovery

chapter 9|11 pages

Developer obligations for public services

The Italian mix

chapter 10|13 pages


Developer obligations and land readjustment

chapter 11|9 pages

Developers’ obligations in Portugal

The imperfect equation for value capture

chapter 15|11 pages

Value capture from development gains towards public utility

The case of Seoul, Republic of Korea 1