Traditionally, the public sector has been responsible for the provision of all public goods necessary to support sustainable urban development, including public infrastructure such as roads, parks, social facilities, climate mitigation and adaptation, and affordable housing. With the shift in recent years towards public infrastructure being financed by private stakeholders, the demand for transparent guidance to ensure accountability for the responsibilities held by developers has risen. 

Within planning practice and urban development, the shift towards private financing of public infrastructure has translated into new tools being implemented to provide joint responsibility for upholding requirements. Developer obligations are contributions made by property developers and landowners towards public infrastructure in exchange for decisions on land-use regulations which increase the economic value of their land. This book presents insight into the design and practical results of these obligations in different countries and their effects on municipal financial health, demonstrating the increasing importance of efficient bargaining processes and the institutional design of developer obligations in modern urban planning.

Primarily written for academics in land-use planning, real estate, urban development, law, and economics, it will additionally be useful to policy makers and practitioners pursuing the improvement of public infrastructure financing.

chapter |23 pages


ByDemetrio Muñoz Gielen, Erwin van der Krabben

chapter 1|13 pages

Development obligations in Canada

The experience in four provinces
ByEran S. Kaplinsky, David Amborski

chapter 2|10 pages

Developer obligations in the US

ByNico Calavita

chapter 3|9 pages

Developers’ obligations as a land value capture tool

Practice and lessons from Colombia
ByJuan Felipe Pinilla

chapter 4|12 pages

Charging building rights as non-negotiable developer obligations

The case of Brazil
ByMarcio Alex Marcelino

chapter 5|13 pages

The progressive acceptance of developer obligations in Chile, 1990–2017

ByPia Mora, Vicente Burgos Salas

chapter 6|10 pages


Ban on conditioning the land-use plan to developer obligations diminishes their effectiveness
ByDemetrio Muñoz Gielen, Tomasz Ossowicz, Tomasz Zaborowski

chapter 7|9 pages

The Netherlands

Developer obligations towards cost recovery
ByDemetrio Muñoz Gielen

chapter 8|10 pages

The influence of politicization on the implementation of developer obligations in a federalist country

Evidence from Switzerland 1
BySébastien Lambelet, François-Xavier Viallon

chapter 9|11 pages

Developer obligations for public services

The Italian mix
ByLaura Pogliani

chapter 10|13 pages


Developer obligations and land readjustment
ByDemetrio Muñoz Gielen

chapter 11|9 pages

Developers’ obligations in Portugal

The imperfect equation for value capture
ByAna Morais de Sá, Paulo Vasconcelos Dias Correia

chapter 12|10 pages

Use of Negotiable Developer Obligations (NDOs) in urban planning and land development systems in Turkey

BySevkiye Sence Turk, Fatma Belgin Gumru

chapter 13|11 pages

Infrastructure contributions and negotiable developer obligations in China

ByZhi Liu, Xinman Zeng

chapter 14|10 pages

A proposed framework of developer obligations to unleash land supply in Hong Kong

Land readjustment
ByK. W. Chau, Lennon H.T. Choy, Lawrence W. C. Lai

chapter 15|11 pages

Value capture from development gains towards public utility

The case of Seoul, Republic of Korea 1
ByKlaas Kresse, Myounggu Kang, Sang-Il Kim, Erwin van der Krabben

chapter 16|9 pages

Developer obligations in relation to land value capture in Taiwan

ByTzu-Chin Lin, Hsiu-Yin Ding

chapter 17|9 pages

Indonesian experience with non-negotiable and negotiable developer obligations

Case study of Surabaya City
ByAdjie Pamungkas, Ary A. Samsura

chapter 18|8 pages

Developer obligations under the New South Wales, Australia, planning system

ByGlen Searle, Nicole Gurran, Catherine Gilbert

chapter |37 pages


ByDemetrio Muñoz Gielen, Erwin van der Krabben