This volume presents state-of-the-art empirical studies working in a paradigm that has become known as human behavioral ecology. The emergence of this approach in anthropology was marked by publication by Aldine in 1979 of an earlier collection of studies edited by Chagnon and Irons entitled Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective. During the two decades that have passed since then, this innovative approach has matured and expanded into new areas that are explored here.

The book opens with an introductory chapter by Chagnon and Irons tracing the origins of human behavioral ecology and its subsequent development. Subsequent chapters, written by both younger scholars and established researchers, cover a wide range of societies and topics organ-ized into six sections. The first section includes two chapters that provide historical background on the development of human behavioral ecology and com-pare it to two complementary approaches in the study of evolution and human behavior, evolutionary psychology, and dual inheritance theory. The second section includes five studies of mating efforts in a variety of societies from South America and Africa. The third section covers parenting, with five studies on soci-eties from Africa, Asia, and North America. The fourth section breaks somewhat with the tradition in human behavioral ecology by focusing on one particularly problematic issue, the demographic transition, using data from Europe, North America, and Asia. The fifth section includes studies of cooperation and helping behaviors, using data from societies in Micronesia and South America. The sixth and final section consists of a single chapter that places the volume in a broader critical and comparative context.

The contributions to this volume demonstrate, with a high degree of theoretical and methodological sophistication--the maturity and freshness of this new paradigm in the study of human behavior. The volume will be of interest to anthropologists and other professions working on the study of cross-cultural human behavior.

part I|46 pages

Some Statements of Theory

chapter 1|24 pages

Two Decades of a New Paradigm

ByWilliam Irons, Lee Cronk

chapter 2|20 pages

Three Styles in the Evolutionary Analysis of Human Behavior

ByEric Alden Smith

part II|106 pages


chapter 3|20 pages

Polygyny, Family Structure, and Child Mortality

A Prospective Study among the Dogon of Mali
ByBeverly I. Strassmann

chapter 4|22 pages

Paternal Investment and Hunter-Gatherer Divorce Rates

ByNicholas G. Blurton Jones, Frank W. Marlowe, Kristen Hawkes, James F. O’Connell

chapter 5|24 pages

Fertility, Offspring Quality, and Wealth in Datoga Pastoralists

Testing Evolutionary Models of Intersexual Selection
ByDaniel W. Sellen, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Daniela F. Sieff

chapter 6|18 pages

Manipulating Kinship Rules

A Form of Male Yanomamö Reproductive Competition
ByNapoleon A. Chagnon

part III|106 pages


chapter 8|24 pages

Parental Investment Strategies among Aka Foragers, Ngandu Farmers, and Euro-American Urban-Industrialists

ByBarry S. Hewlett, Michael E. Lamb, Birgit Leyendecker, Axel Schölmerich

chapter 9|24 pages

Parenting Other Men’s Children

Costs, Benefits, and Consequences
ByJane B. Lancaster, Hillard S. Kaplan

chapter 11|14 pages

Why Do the Yomut Raise More Sons than Daughters?

ByWilliam Irons

chapter 12|22 pages

The Grandmother Hypothesis and Human Evolution

ByKristen Hawkes, James F. O’Connell, Nicholas G. Blurton Jones, Helen Alvarez, Eric L. Charnov

part IV|110 pages

The Demographic Transition

chapter 13|22 pages

An Adaptive Model of Human Reproductive Rate Where Wealth Is Inherited

Why People Have Small Families
ByRuth Mace

chapter 14|40 pages

The Evolutionary Economics and Psychology of the Demographic Transition to Low Fertility

ByHillard S. Kaplan, Jane B. Lancaster

chapter 15|22 pages

Sex, Wealth, and Fertility

Old Rules, New Environments
ByBobbi S. Low

chapter 16|24 pages

To Marry Again or Not

A Dynamic Model for Demographic Transition
ByBarney Luttbeg, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Marc Mangel

part V|104 pages


chapter 17|26 pages

Effects of Illness and Injury on Foraging among the Yora and Shiwiar

Pathology Risk as Adaptive Problem
ByLawrence S. Sugiyama, Richard Chacon

chapter 18|20 pages

Reciprocal Altruism in Yanomamö Food Exchange

ByRaymond Hames

chapter 19|20 pages

Reciprocal Altruism and Warfare

A Case from the Ecuadorian Amazon
ByJohn Q. Patton

chapter 20|36 pages

The Emergence and Stability of Cooperative Fishing on Ifaluk Atoll

ByRichard Sosis

part VI|24 pages


chapter 21|22 pages

Twenty Years of Evolutionary Biology and Human Social behavior

Where Are We Now?
ByJ. Patrick Gray