More than a decade has passed since the First International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) was held at Northwestern University in 1991. The conference has now become an established place for researchers to gather. The 2004 meeting is the first under the official sponsorship of the International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS). The theme of this conference is "Embracing Diversity in the Learning Sciences." As a field, the learning sciences have always drawn from a diverse set of disciplines to study learning in an array of settings. Psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, and artificial intelligence have all contributed to the development of methodologies to study learning in schools, museums, and organizations. As the field grows, however, it increasingly recognizes the challenges to studying and changing learning environments across levels in complex social systems. This demands attention to new kinds of diversity in who, what, and how we study; and to the issues raised to develop coherent accounts of how learning occurs. Ranging from schools to families, and across all levels of formal schooling from pre-school through higher education, this ideology can be supported in a multitude of social contexts. The papers in these conference proceedings respond to the call.

part 1|26 pages


chapter 1|3 pages

People, Places, and Things

Multiple Perspectives on Learning Opportunities for Diverse Populations

part 2|555 pages


chapter 9|8 pages

The Role of Gesture in Instructional Communication

Evidence from an Early Algebra Lesson

chapter 10|6 pages

Student Generated Analogies in Science:

Analogy as Categorization Phenomenon

chapter 12|8 pages

Learning to Distinguish Between Representations of Data:

A Cognitive Tutor that Uses Contrasting Cases

chapter 15|8 pages

Help-seeking in Interactive Learning Environments:

Effectiveness of Help and Learner-related Factors in a Dyadic Setting

chapter 16|8 pages

Self-Explaining Science Texts:

Strategies, Knowledge, and Reading Skill

chapter 17|8 pages

Representing a Problem Space:

Towards a Deeper Understanding of the Practice of Instructional Leadership

chapter 18|8 pages


Exploring Learning through Expression in the Arts through Constructing in a Technologically Immersive Environment

chapter 19|8 pages

Climbing to Understanding

Lessons from an Experimental Learning Environment for Adjudicated Youth

chapter 20|7 pages

Seeing Nacirema

How Students and Professors Interpret Ethnographic Film

chapter 21|8 pages

Passive Forum Behaviors (Lurking)

A Community Perspective

chapter 22|6 pages

Learning to Participate in Disciplinary Discourses

What Happens When the Conversation Ends?

chapter 24|8 pages

Knowledge Sharing in Groups

Experimental Findings of How to Overcome a Social Dilemma

chapter 26|8 pages

The Interest-Driven Learning Design Framework

Motivating Learning through Usefulness

chapter 27|8 pages

‘Cultural Mathematics' in the Oksapmin Curriculum

Continuities and Discontinuities

chapter 28|8 pages

The Best Made Plans of Mice and Curriculum Planners

Embracing Diversity in Teacher Needs and Planning for it

chapter 30|8 pages

How a Creative “System” Learns

The Distributed Activity of Choreography

chapter 35|8 pages

Of Grids and Jars

A Comparative Analysis of Representational Infrastructure and Learning Opportunities in Middle School and Professional Science

chapter 36|8 pages

Narrative and Identity:

Constructing Oppositional Identities in Performance Communities

chapter 37|8 pages

Understanding Collaborative Activity Systems:

The Relation of Tools and Discourse in Mediating Learning

chapter 45|8 pages

How Should Learning Be Structured in Inquiry-based Science Instruction?:

Investigating the Interplay of 1st- and 2nd-hand Investigations

chapter 51|8 pages

Professional Development and Teacher Change

A Longitudinal Investigation of Teacher Generative Growth

chapter 54|8 pages

Learning Behind the Scenes

Development of Mentors through Their Participation in Design Research

chapter 55|8 pages

Case Application Suite

Scaffolding Use of Expert Cases in Middle-School Project-Based Inquiry Classrooms

chapter 56|8 pages

Meeting Teachers in the Middle

Designing Handheld Computer-Supported Activities to improve Student Questioning

chapter 58|7 pages

Role, Goal, and Activity

A Framework for Characterizing Participation and Engagement in Project-Based Learning Environments

chapter 60|8 pages

Contextualizing Instruction in Project-Based Science

Activating Students' Prior Knowledge and Experiences to Support Learning

chapter 61|6 pages

Motivation to Read

Comparing Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Motivation with Students' Self-Reported Motivation: A Pilot Study

chapter 63|8 pages

The Impact of Example Comparisons on Schema Acquisition

Do Learners Really Need Multiple Examples?

chapter 65|8 pages

Epistemic Frames and Islands of Expertise

Learning from Infusion Experiences

chapter 66|8 pages

GoGo Board

Augmenting Programmable Bricks for Economically Challenged Audiences

chapter 67|8 pages


Supporting Community Awareness, Learning, and Evolvement in an Organizational Learning Environment

chapter 69|8 pages

Replaying History

Engaging Urban Underserved Students in Learning World History Through Computer Simulation Games

chapter 73|8 pages

Technology-Supported Systemic Reform

An Initial Evaluation and Reassessment

chapter 74|8 pages

Diverse Settings for Learning and Teaching

Preservice Teachers Learning Pedagogy Online and On-the-Fly

chapter 75|8 pages

Leveraging Handhelds to Increase Student Learning

Engaging Middle School Students with the Mathematics of Change

chapter 76|7 pages

Fostering Reflection with Socratic Tutoring Software

Results of Using Inquiry Teaching Strategies with Web-Based HCI Techniques

part 3|71 pages


chapter 83|2 pages

We Built This City:

Developing Students' Understanding of Ecology Through the Professional Practice of Urban Planning

chapter 84|1 pages

Milo and J-Mole:

Computers as Constructivist Teachable Agents

chapter 93|1 pages

My World:

A Case Study in Adapting Scientists' Tools for Learners

chapter 94|1 pages

Who has Why-Pox:

A Case Study of Informal Science Education on the Net

chapter 96|1 pages

Numerically Driven Inferencing about Abortion:

Estimation and Rate Feedback's Diverse Effects on Personal Policies and Justifications

chapter 100|2 pages

Tools for Open Interpretation:

Using Novel, Non-Desktop Computing to Support Multiple Perspectives in Children's Historical Understanding

chapter 101|2 pages

Audience in Computer Learning:

A Constructionist Interpretation

chapter 102|1 pages

Computer-Assisted Engineering for Children:

a Pop-Up Design Application

chapter 105|1 pages

Searching for Steven Spielberg: Introducing iMovie to the High School English Classroom

A Closer Look at What Open-Ended Technology Project Designs Can Do to Promote Engaged Learning

chapter 107|1 pages

Information Infrastructures to Support Ambitious Instruction in Urban Schools:

Bringing Diverse Perspectives to Bear on a Tough Problem

chapter 108|1 pages

Increasing Diversity in the Information Technology Workforce:

Implications from a Study of Factors that Predict Achievement in CS

chapter 109|1 pages

Sam Goes to School:

Story Listening Systems in the Classroom

chapter 110|1 pages

Getting Your Socks Wet:

Augmented Reality Environmental Science

chapter 112|2 pages

Social and Technological Innovations:

Ways into The Knowledge Society

chapter 113|1 pages

Supporting the Scaling of Innovations:

Guiding Teacher Adaptation of Materials by Making Implicit StructuresExplicit

chapter 115|1 pages

Using Handheld Technologies in High School Economics:

A School-University Collaborative Design Project

chapter 117|1 pages

A Breath of Fresh Air:

Alternative Approaches to Learning

chapter 122|1 pages

Making Connections:

The Discourse of Collaboration

chapter 124|1 pages

The Digital IdeaKeeper:

Combining Digital Library Services with Support for Online Inquiry

chapter 126|1 pages

Medium-Based Design:

Supporting Bricoleur Designers

chapter 129|1 pages

Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology:

Analysis of Pre-service Elementary and Middle School Teachers' Interactions With Computer Modeling and Simulation Tools

chapter 131|1 pages

Preservice Elementary Science Teachers' Identity Development:

Identifying with Images of Inquiry

chapter 135|1 pages

Berta's Tower:

Understanding Physics Through Virtual Engineering

chapter 138|1 pages

Inquiry Practices As Systems:

Characterizing Important Elements of Reasoning

chapter 139|1 pages

Game of the Moment:

Constructed Game Playing in Young Children's Classroom

part 4|11 pages

Doctoral Consortium

chapter 143|1 pages

Student Generated Analogies in Science:

Analogy as Categorization Phenomenon

chapter 144|1 pages

Cooperative Problem-Solving and Learning in Computer-Mediated Settings:

The Role of Shared Pictorial and Textual Applications in Free and Restricted Communication

chapter 146|1 pages

Designing for Participation:

How Social and Environmental Factors Influence Educational Discussions

chapter 147|1 pages

Designing, Playing, and Learning:

Sustaining Student Engagement with a Constructionist Design Tool for Craft and Math

chapter 148|1 pages

The Good Field Trip:

How Student Epistemologies of Science and Art are Affected by Trips to Museums and Other Sites

chapter 149|1 pages

The Good Field Trip:

How Student Epistemologies of Science and Art are Affected by Trips to Museums and Other Sites

chapter 150|1 pages

E-Design for a Learning Journey

chapter 152|1 pages

Local vs. Global Networks:

Network Analysis of a Multi-User Virtual Environment