In most developing countries wastewater treatment systems are hardly functioning or have a very low coverage, resulting in large scale water pollution and the use of very poor quality water for crop irrigation especially in the vicinity of urban centres. This can create significant risks to public health, particularly where crops are eaten raw. Wastewater Irrigation and Health approaches this serious problem from a practical and realistic perspective, addressing the issues of health risk assessment and reduction in developing country settings. The book therefore complements other books on the topic of wastewater which focus on high-end treatment options and the use of treated wastewater. This book moves the debate forward by covering also the common reality of untreated wastewater, greywater and excreta use. It presents the state-of-the-art on quantitative risk assessment and low-cost options for health risk reduction, from treatment to on-farm and off-farm measures, in support of the multiple barrier approach of the 2006 guidelines for safe wastewater irrigation published by the World Health Organization. The 38 authors and co-authors are international key experts in the field of wastewater irrigation representing a mix of agronomists, engineers, social scientists and public health experts from Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and Australia. The chapters highlight experiences across the developing world with reference to various case studies from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Mexico and the Middle East. The book also addresses options for resource recovery and wastewater governance, thus clearly establishes a connection between agriculture, health and sanitation, which is often the missing link in the current discussion on 'making wastewater an asset'.

part |2 pages

PART 1 Setting the Stage

chapter 1|26 pages

Wastewater, Sludge and Excreta Use in Developing Countries: An Overview

ByBlanca Jiménez, Pay Drechsel, Doulaye Koné, Akiça Bahri

chapter 2|20 pages

Assessing and Mitigating Wastewater-Related Health Risks in Low-Income Countries: An Introduction

ByRobert Bos, Richard Carr, Bernard Keraita

part |2 pages

PART 2 Risks and Risk Assessment

chapter 4|26 pages

Approaches to Evaluate and Develop Health Risk-Based Standards Using Available Data

ByInés Navarro, Peter Teunis, Christine Moe, Blanca Jiménez

chapter 5|12 pages

Tools for Risk Analysis: Updating the 2006 WHO Guidelines

ByDuncan Mara, Andrew J. Hamilton, Andrew Sleigh, Natalie Karavarsamis, Razak Seidu

chapter 6|26 pages

Non-Pathogenic Trade-Offs of Wastewater Irrigation

ByManzoor Qadir, Christopher A. Scott

chapter 7|20 pages

Risk Analysis Integrating Livelihood and Economic Impacts of Wastewater Irrigation on Health

ByMarites M. Tiongco, Clare A. Narrod, Kelly Bidwell

part |2 pages

PART 3 Minimizing Health Risks

chapter 8|22 pages

Wastewater Treatment for Pathogen Removal and Nutrient Conservation: Suitable Systems for Use in Developing Countries

ByBlanca Jiménez, Duncan Mara, Richard Carr, François Brissaud

chapter 9|18 pages

Low-Cost Options for Pathogen Reduction and Nutrient Recovery from Faecal Sludge

ByDoulaye Koné, Olufunke O. Cofie, Kara Nelson

chapter 10|20 pages

Farm-Based Measures for Reducing Microbiological Health Risks for Consumers from Informal Wastewater-Irrigated Agriculture

ByBernard Keraita, Flemming Konradsen, Pay Drechsel

chapter 11|30 pages

Farm-Based Measures for Reducing Human and Environmental Health Risks from Chemical Constituents in Wastewater

ByRobert Simmons, Manzoor Qadir, Pay Drechsel

chapter 12|22 pages

Applying the Multiple-Barrier Approach for Microbial Risk Reduction in the Post-Harvest Sector of Wastewater-Irrigated Vegetables

BySanja Ilic, Pay Drechsel, Philip Amoah and Jeffrey T. LeJeune

part |2 pages

PART 4 Wastewater Governance and Adoption of Risk-Reduction Options

chapter 14|16 pages

Challenging Conventional Approaches to Managing Wastewater Use in Agriculture

ByFrans Huibers, Mark Redwood, Liqa Raschid-Sally

chapter 16|18 pages

Facilitating the Adoption of Food-Safety Interventions in the Street-Food Sector and on Farms

ByHanna Karg, Pay Drechsel, Philip Amoah, Regina Jeitler

chapter 17|18 pages

Harnessing Farmers’ Knowledge and Perceptions for Health-Risk Reduction in Wastewater-Irrigated Agriculture

ByBernard Keraita, Pay Drechsel, Razak Seidu, Priyanie Amerasinghe, Olufunke O. Cofie, Flemming Konradsen

chapter 18|24 pages

Multi-Stakeholder Processes for Managing Wastewater Use in Agriculture

ByAlexandra E. V. Evans, Liqa Raschid-Sally, Olufunke O. Cofie

part |2 pages

PART 5 Conclusions and Outlook

chapter 19|14 pages

Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Challenges and Outlook for Mitigating Risks in Low-Income Countries

ByChristopher A. Scott, Pay Drechsel, Liqa Raschid-Sally, Akiça Bahri, Duncan Mara, Mark Redwood, Blanca Jiménez