Gives an account of the morphologies of vertebrate respiratory organs and attempts to explicate the basis of the common and different structural and functional designs and stratagems that have evolved for acquisition of molecular oxygen. The book has been written with a broad readership in mind: students of biology as well as experts in the disciplines of zoology, physiology, morphology, biological microscopy, biomedical engineering, and ecology and those that work or may contemplate working on materials and aspects concerning respiration in whole organisms will find it useful. Scientists in earth sciences with particular interest on the outcomes of past interactions between environmental factors (the physical domain) and evolution and adaptation (the biological domain), mechanisms that have set the composition, patterning, and anatomies of extant animal life, will find the book of interest.

chapter 2|20 pages


chapter 3|7 pages


chapter 4|14 pages

Sivim (Air) Bladder

chapter 5|10 pages

Transitional (Bimodal) Breathers

chapter 6|15 pages

Amphibian Lung

chapter 7|16 pages

Reptilian Lung

chapter 8|15 pages

Avian Lung

chapter 9|15 pages

Mammalian Lung

chapter 10|4 pages

Summary and Conclusions