Mining activities may result in rock mass deterioration and instability that may lead to failure both in underground and open pit mines. Such deterioration represents a safety risk and may result in substantial financial losses. Rock mass response may lead to ground subsidence, fall of ground/caving, inundation, pillar collapse, seismic activities and slope and tailings dam instability. Each response is preceded by warning signs and precursors, which are identified in this book, with a view to providing guidelines for prediction and amelioration of damage to mining structures. Furthermore, case studies of both large scale ground deterioration leading to collapse and geotechnical mine disasters are presented. Identifying risks and monitoring geotechnical precursors and warning signs allows for safe and productive mining.