With mounting pressure to extract petroleum from oil sands and other unconventional sources, oil refineries must adapt their processing methods to handle increasingly heavy crude oils. Unlike traditional crude oils, the properties of heavier crude oils include higher viscosity, metal, salt, and acid content. This causes their interfacial properties

chapter 1|40 pages

Crude Oils

chapter 2|40 pages

Conventional Refining

chapter 3|42 pages

Nonconventional Refining

chapter 4|28 pages

Asphaltene Stability

chapter 5|32 pages

Daylight Stability

chapter 6|30 pages

Clay Treatment

chapter 7|32 pages

Foam Inhibition

chapter 8|26 pages

Air Entrainment

chapter 9|26 pages

Water Contamination

chapter 10|30 pages

Rust and Corrosion

chapter 11|22 pages

Ion-Exchange Resin Treatment