This book presents a summary of the research progress in the field of petroleum radiation processing, which has produced technology that offers effective and economic solutions for some pressing oil refining challenges. It provides a systematic description of the most important experiments on radiation cracking for different types of petroleum feedstock, including crude oils, heavy oil residues, and bitumen. The book provides a detailed introduction to radiation methods based on radiation-thermal and low-temperature cracking of hydrocarbons, emphasizing high-viscous oil feedstocks that are difficult to process by conventional methods.