From the early wave-particle arguments to the mathematical theory of electromagnetism to Einstein's work on the quantization of light, different descriptions of what constitutes light have existed for over 300 years. This book examines the photon phenomenon from several perspectives. It demonstrates the importance of studying the photon as a concept belonging to a global vacuum (matter-free space). The book explains the models and physical and mathematical descriptions of light and examines the behavior of light and its interaction with matter.

part 1|2 pages

Part I: Classical optics in global vacuum

chapter 1|4 pages

Heading for photon physics

chapter 3|12 pages

Optics in the special theory of relativity

part 2|2 pages

Part II: Light rays and geodesics. Maxwell theory in general relativity

part 3|2 pages

Part III: Photon wave mechanics

chapter 9|6 pages

The elusive light particle

chapter 12|16 pages

Massive photon field

chapter 13|16 pages

Photon energy wave function formalism

part 4|2 pages

Single-photon quantum optics in Minkowskian space

part 5|2 pages

Part V: Photon embryo states

chapter 19|6 pages

Attached photons in rim zones

chapter 20|16 pages

Evanescent photon fields

chapter 21|18 pages

Photon tunneling

chapter 22|20 pages

Near-field photon emission in 3D

part 6|2 pages

Photon source domain and propagators

part 7|2 pages

Part VII: Photon vacuum and quanta in Minkowskian space

part 8|2 pages

Two-photon entanglement in space-time

chapter 31|6 pages

The quantal photon gas

chapter 32|8 pages

Quantum measurements

chapter 34|28 pages

Spontaneous one- and two-photon emissions