This work explains how wars are most likely to escalate when the effects of warfare are limited. The author demonstrates that total wars during the modern era were very violent and were far less likely to spread, yet the cost of warfare is falling making future conflicts more likely to spread.

chapter 1|6 pages


chapter 5|30 pages

The Crimean War (1853–56)

chapter 6|32 pages

World War I

chapter 7|10 pages