ABSTRACT

This work explains how wars are most likely to escalate when the effects of warfare are limited. The author demonstrates that total wars during the modern era were very violent and were far less likely to spread, yet the cost of warfare is falling making future conflicts more likely to spread.

chapter 1|6 pages

Introduction

chapter 2|21 pages

Predation, Balancing and Political Cost

chapter 3|27 pages

The Seven Years’ War (1756–63)

chapter 5|30 pages

The Crimean War (1853–56)

chapter 6|32 pages

World War I

chapter 7|10 pages

Conclusion