Through focusing on the unintended by-products of New England Puritanism as a cultural transplant in the Levant, this book explores the socio-historical forces which account for the failure of early envoys’ attempts to convert the ‘native,’ population. Early failure in conversion led to later success in reinventing themselves as agents of secular and liberal education, welfare, and popular culture. Through making special efforts not to debase local culture, the missionaries’ work resulted in large sections of society becoming protestantized without being evangelized.

An invaluable resource for postgraduates and those undertaking postdoctoral research, this book explores a seminal but overlooked interlude in the encounters between American Protestantism and the Levant. Using data from previously unexplored personal narrative accounts, Khalaf dates the emergence of the puritanical imagination, sparked by sentiments of American exceptionalism, voluntarism and "soft power" to at least a century before commonly assumed.

part |107 pages

On Calvinism, Evangelism and Puritanism

chapter |25 pages

The Evangelical Imagination

New England Puritans and Foreign Missions

chapter |15 pages

Universities as Nurseries of Piety

chapter |31 pages

The World as an Enlarged New England

chapter |34 pages

Images of Islam and the Orient

part |143 pages

Leavening the Levant

chapter |21 pages

Protestant Orientalism

Evangelical Christianity and Cultural Imperialism

chapter |31 pages

The Levant as a Missionary Field

chapter |30 pages

Puritans in Lebanon

Early Encounters, 1820–40

chapter |21 pages

On Doing Much with Little Noise

chapter |38 pages

Christianize or Civilize

Obstacles and Changing Strategies, 1840–60