This book examines the influence of the European Commission and the European Court of Justice in the political and legal enforcement of member state compliance in the EU. The authors show how the EU's supranational institutions have played an independent role in the creation of a European enforcement system that is exceptionally effective compared to that of other international organizations.

chapter 1|14 pages


chapter 4|18 pages

Centralized Enforcement Through Supranational Institutions

The exploitation of existing powers

chapter 5|20 pages

Delegation of Enforcement Powers

The supranational quest for sanctioning authority

chapter 6|36 pages

Decentralized Enforcement Through National Courts

The supranational creation of new powers

chapter 7|17 pages